Arheologija

Objavil/a Belokranjski muzej Metlika, dne 2017-05-15 ob 17:37:43

Najstarejši ohranjeni predmeti v arheološki zbirki so iz 5. tisočletja pred našim štetjem, in sicer iz obdobja mlajše kamene dobe. Večina raznolikega lončenega posodja, orodja, orožja in nakita se navezuje na čas do pozne antike, čeprav so v zbirki tudi srednjeveški in novoveški predmeti. Prvih petindvajset let je muzej na terenu Bele krajine opravljal tudi spomeniškovarstveno službo, zlasti je skrbel za arheološka izkopavanja na Kučarju pri Podzemlju, na Borštku v Metliki in v Rosalnicah. Tem najdiščem so se potem, ko so izkopavanja večinoma vodili v Zavodu za varstvo kulturne dediščine iz Novega mesta, pridružila številna nova: Moverna vas, Hrib v Metliki, Sv. Duh v Črnomlju in druga. 

Nekaj predmetov:

POSODA 
5. tisočletje pred našim štetjem
Najdišče: Moverna vas
Inv. Št.: 3750


Za slovenska celinska najdišča 5. tisočletja pred našim štetjem je značilna rdeče pobarvana keramika, ki je izdelana iz prečiščene gline in zelo dobro žgana. Odkritje postopka izdelave lončevine je v mlajši kameni dobi pomenilo pomembno tehnološko prelomnico v tehnološkem razvoju človeške družbe.

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

KAMNITA SEKIRA 
5. – 3. tisočletje pred našim štetjem
Najdišče: Dragovanja vas
Inv. št.: A116


Kamnita sekira je iz svetlosivega peščenca. V prerezu je trikotne oblike, en konec se končuje v rezilu, drugi ima luknjo za nasajanje. Za neolitik in eneolitik je bilo značilno glajeno kamnito orodje iz trših kamnin. 

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

BRONASTA SEKIRA 
12. – 9. stoletje pred našim štetjem
Podzemelj, najdišče: Kučar
Inv. št.: A 271
 
Ustje sekire je odebeljeno in okrašeno s remi plastičnimi rebri. Prav tako je z rebri okrašeno tudi telo sekire, ki se v loku dvigajo od rezila k ustju. Različni tipi sekir so iz različnih obdobij bronaste dobe, to uporabljali v pozni bronasti dobi. 

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

ŽARA 
7. stoletje pred našim štetjem
Metlika, najdišče: Borštek
Inv. št.: A132
 
Bikonična žara z visokim stožčastim vratom in širokim navzven zavihanim ustjem je iz sivočrne gline.  Ustje je na notranji strani okrašeno s cikcakastim ornamentom. Na vratu so vrezani štirje ornamenti: dva v obliki malteškega križa in dva v obliki enakokrakega trikotnika, ki je sestavljen iz šestih manjših trikotnikov. Ornament v obliki malteškega križa kaže na povezave z vzhodom.

				Foto Branko Babić<br>			Foto Branko Babić

BRONAST PEKTORAL 
6. stoletje pred našim štetjem
Metlika, najdišče: Hrib
Inv. št.: A 592
 
Bronast obesek ima spiralno zavita konca. Na njem visijo obeski v obliki zrna. Obesek je sestavljen iz treh delov. Začenja ga obesek s tremi zankami, izdelan iz bronaste žice. Na spodnjih dveh zankah obeska, ki ima spiralno zvita konca, visijo po tri profilirane paličice, nanje pa so obešene bronaste jagode, ki posnemajo obliko polžev kavri. Ti živijo v toplih morjih Indijskega oceana in jugozahodnem delu Tihega oceana, že v prazgodovini pa so predstavljali veliko dragocenost in redkost. Prav zato so jim takratni ljudje pripisovali celo magijsko moč. V naše kraje so pektoral prinesli prazgodovinski trgovci.

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

BRONASTA PASNA SPONA 
Konec 2. ali 1. stoletja pred našim štetjem
Črnomelj, najdišče: Sv. Duh
Inv. št.: 2625
 
Del bronaste spone pravokotne oblike ima motiv stilizirane konjske glave. Na dveh vogalih je po ena železna zakovica. Pasovi, okovani z bronastimi gumbki, ki so se spenjali z ulitimi bronastimi sponami trapezaste oblike z železnim kavljem, so bile sestavni del noše nekaterih ženskih viniških skupnosti. Spone imajo na sprednji strani reliefen geometrijski ali figuralni okras. 

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

KELTSKI MEČ 
2. stoletje pred našim štetjem
Metlika, najdišče: Pungart
Inv. št.: A 472

Železen meč je dvorezen. Na prehodu rezila v trn je vtisnjena figura majhne človeške glave z izbuljenimi očmi. Na rezilih keltskih mečev iz 2. stoletja pred našim štetjem so včasih pod ročajem vtisnjeni žigi. Verjetno ne gre za znake orožarskih delavnic ali lastniških oznake, ampak za magične simbole, ki naj bi bojevnike ščitili v boju. Na meču s Pungarta je upodobljen obraz brkatega moškega z iztegnjenim jezikom. 

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

OLJENKA 
Zadnja četrtina 1. stoletja 
Metlika, najdišče: Borštek
Inv. št.: R10
 
Oljenka iz svetlorjave gline. Na dnu ima vrezan krog s petimi pikami. Na disku je vtisnjen plastičen relief dirjajočega konja. Oljenke – stare svetilke, v katerih gori olje, o v naše kraje najprej uvažali, nato pa so jih začeli izdelovati v domačih lončarskih delavnicah.  

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

OBESEK KRIŽEC 
5. stoletje
Podzemelj, najdišče: Kučar
Inv. št.: R 162
 
Obesek v obliki križa z razširjenimi kraki je iz srebrne pločevine. Ob robu je okrašen z nizom iztolčenih pik. V luknjico na vrhu kraka je vdeta zanka v obliki črke S, narejena iz srebrne žice. Prevlada krščanstva je vplivala tudi na oblikovanje okrasja in uporabnih predmetov.    

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

AMFORA 
pozno 5. do zgodnje 6. stoletje
Črnomelj, najdišče: Sv. Duh
Inv. št.: 2509
 
Poznoantična dvoročajna amfora ima cilindrični vrat in ravno zaključeno rahlo odebeljeno ustje. Rame in trup posode so narebreni. Amforo bledorumene barve so uporabljali za shranjevanje vina, olja, medu ali vode.

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

GLAVNIK 
5. – 6. stoletje
Črnomelj, najdišče: Sv. Duh     
Inv. št.: 2629
 
Rožen dvovrstni glavnik ima v sredini izrezljane boke. Prečki polkrožnega preseka sta okrašeni s štirimi trojnimi poševnimi vrezi in poševnimi nizi pik. Krajši robovi prečk so okrašeni s prečnimi vrezi. Prečki sta pritrjeni na glavnik s šestimi železnimi zakovicami.  

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

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