Kulturna zgodovina

Objavil/a Belokranjski muzej Metlika, dne 2017-05-15 ob 17:38:39

Kulturnozgodovinska zbirka je po obsegu tretja najobsežnejša v Belokranjskem muzeju. V njej so najrazličnejši predmeti – od hladnega in strelnega orožja do pohištva, lekarniškega, gostilniškega in hišnega posodja, glasbil, uniform in pokrival, različnih napisnih tabel ter drobnih predmetov, kot so svetinjice, prstani, odlikovanja in ključi. Časovno v to zbirko spadajo predmeti od srednjega veka do konca 19. stoletja, nekateri sodijo tudi v 20. stoletje. Vsebinsko so tako povezani, da jih ne moremo preprosto razmejiti z letnico. 

Nekaj predmetov: 

VRČ S SREBRNIKI 
16. stoletje, Grabrovec
Inv. št.: 1760

Glinast vrč za vodo ali vino, okrašen z rjavimi črtami in ne glaziran, je bil najden pri izkopu za hišo na Grabrovcu. V njem so bili »shranjeni« srebrni bavarski pfenigi, kovani med letoma 1393 in 1505. 

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

GRB IVANA LENKOVIČA 
1537, Pobrežje
Inv. št.: 1758
 
Kamnita grbovna plošča je bila vzidana v Jandričkovem stolpu v gradu Pobrežje. Na grbu sta zmaj, simbol družine Lenkovič, in letnica 1557. Ivan Lenkovič je začel grad, ki je predstavljal pomembno protiturško utrdbo nad brodiščem čez Kolpo, zidati leta 1549. Utrjen je bil leta 1555, razširjen pa dve leti kasneje.    

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

CEHOVSKI PEČATNIK 
17. stoletje, Metlika
Inv. št.: 1806
 
V Metliki sta bila let 1569 ustanovljena ceha čevljarjev in mesarjev. Najstarejše ohranjene listine čevljarskega ceha segajo v leto 1587. V cehovski knjigi so ob koncu 16. in v 17. stoletju poleg nemških tudi slovenski zapisi. Metliški čevljarski ceh je kasneje združeval še mesarje, kovače, tkalce, ključavničarje, mizarje itd. Cehovski pečatnik je medeninast, pečatno polje je ob robu okrašeno z vencem, na sredini je škorenj, nad v polkrogu je napis »S : M : S : V : L«.    

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

SRBSKA (USKOŠKA) SABLJA 
18. stoletje, Dolenjci
Inv. št.: 1762
 
Pomembno vlogo so pri obrambi proti Turkom odigrali Uskoki, ki so se na področje Žumberka in v Belo krajino naseljevali v 16. stoletju. Čeprav Bela krajina nikoli ni bila vključena v Vojno krajino, so utrdbe na njenem ozemlju pripomogle k varovanju Kranjske pred Turki. Uskoška sablja iz jekla je ukrivljena, pri ročaju ima na obeh straneh vgraviran napis »Vincere aut mori«. 				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić
    

TOALETNA SKLEDICA S PODOBO NAPOLEONA 
začetek 19. stoletja, Griblje
Inv. št.: 1767
 
 
Predmeti s podobami Napoleona I. Bonaparta se pojavijo v Bele krajini ob francoski okupaciji v času Ilirski provinc med letoma 1809 in 1813. Zaradi uvedbe in izterjave višjih davkov Francozi med prebivalci niso bili priljubljeni.  V starem trgu in Črnomlju so se prebivalci resno uprlo novi oblasti, zato je morala priti na pomoč vojska iz Novega mesta. Toaletna skledica je narejena iz porcelana, v sredini pa kolorirana podoba cesarja Napoleona I.

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

PRAPOR POŽARNE BRAMBE METLIKA 
1875, Metlika
Inv. št.: Z 527
 
Leta 1969 je metliški graščak vitez Josip Savinšek ustanovil požarno brambo, šest let pozneje pa so metliški gasilci razvili društveni prapor. Izdelovalec ni znan, pokroviteljica ali »kumica« je bila Karolina plemenita Savinškova. Tkanina je močne rdeče barve, slika na platnu, ki je všita v sredino prapora, je poslikana z obeh strani: na eni je metliški grb, na drugi podoba sv. Florijana. Na vrhu prapora je medeninasta špica, lesen drog iz dveh delov pa povezuje kovinska matica. 

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

KROŽNIK 
Okoli leta 1880, Metlika
Inv. št.: Z 1343
 
Krožnik z veduto Ferrare je bil izdelan v Wedgwoodovi tovarni Etruria okoli leta 1880. To vrsto izdelkov so proizvajali že v večjih serijah, zato je ladijski porcelan našel svoje mesto tudi pri meščanih v manjših mestih. Krožnik je iz zapuščine metliškega trgovca Karla Govanca.  

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

LEKARNIŠKA VITRINA 
Druga polovica 19. stoletja, Metlika
Inv.št.: Z 2530
 
Lekarnar Franjo Wacha se je v Metliko priselil leta 1876. Deset let pozneje je na Mestnem trgu zgradil dvonadstropno hišo in v pritličju uredil novo lekarno. Na fasado hiše je dal vzidati relief sv. Trojice, po kateri se je lekarna imenovala »Lekarna k sv. Trojici«. Njegov sin Milan je z lekarništvom nadaljeval do nacionalizacije  po drugi svetovni vojni, ko je lekarno prodal. 

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

GRELNICA ZA POSTELJO 
okoli let 1900, Gradac
Inv. št.: 1750
 
Meščani so uporabljali grelnice pozimi za gretje postelj v neogrevanih spalnicah. Leseno konstrukcijo so položili na odkrito posteljo, namestili kovinsko grelnico z razžarjenim ogljem in za kratek čas vse skupaj prekrili z rjuho in odejo. Grelnica je narejena iz bakrene pločevine, pokrov je okrašen z graviranimi okraski in navrtan. Ročaj je železen. 

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

FOTOAPARAT 
začetek 20. stoletja, Metlika
Inv.št.: Z 761

Metliški trgovec Anton Mucha je imel za Metliko in okoliške kraje pomemben konjiček. S fotografskim aparatom je ustvaril zanimivo zbirko fotografij in negativov na steklu, ki pričajo o življenju Belokranjcev v času pred prvo svetovno vojno in po njej. Aparat na meh ima možnost menjave objektivov.

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

GOSTILNIŠKI CENIK 
okoli leta 1930, Metlika
Inv. št.: Z 2076
 
Leta 1885 je bilo v Metliki 26 gostiln, dvajset let pozneje pa še ena več. Mesto je imelo takrat okoli 1200 prebivalcev. Kmalu po koncu prve svetovne vojne, leta 1921, so v celotni Beli krajini našteli kar 138 gostiln. Gostilniški cenik na leseni plošči je iz Jutraževe (Mežnaršičeve)gostilne v Metliki. Iz njega izvemo, kaj so imeli v ponudbi.   

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

GODBENA UNIFORMA 
1939, Metlika
Inv. št.: 1582
 
Metliška mestna godba je nastala leta 1850 in brez omembe vrednih prekinitev deluje še danes. Godbeniki so nastopali ob svečanih ob svečanih dogodkih in praznikih, meščanom pa so zaigrali tudi za zabavo. Finančno jih je podpirala mestna uprava, del denarja za nakup glasbil in uniform pa so zaslužili z vstopninami na koncerte. Leta 1939 so kupili nove uniforme.    

				Foto: Branko Babić<br>			Foto: Branko Babić

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