Etnologija

Objavil/a Belokranjski muzej Metlika, dne 2017-05-15 ob 17:40:09

Etnološka zbirka je po številu predmetov največja zbirka Belokranjskega muzeja. Predmetom iz kmečkega ali podeželskega okolja, ki jih je muzej pridobival v prvih letih svojega delovanja, se v zadnjem času pridružujejo tudi nekoliko mlajši, ki so zaznamovali življenje Belokranjcev tako po vaseh kot tudi po mestih. Večina predmetov je iz druge polovice 19. in prve polovice 20. stoletja, pokrivajo pa različna področja od gospodarstva do stanovanjske in oblačilne kulture ter ljudske umetnosti – k slednji sodi izjemno bogata zbirka belokranjskih pisanic. 

GRIČKI LONEC
1919, Grič pri Dobličah
Inv. št.: 2115
 
Glinast lonec je izdelan iz močno peščene gline in na nizkem lončarskem vretenu, ki so ga sukali z roko. Žgan je bil samo enkrat, in sicer na prostem ognjišču (pališču), in še žareč kaljen (kalajsan) v vroči vodi, ki so ji dodali korenine praproti in hrastovo skorjo, kar je loncu dalo značilno črno barvo. 

				GRIČKI LONEC<br>1919, Grič pri Dobličah<br>Inv. št.: 2115

Foto: Branko Babić

KRPLJE
1938, Dragovanja vas
Inv. št.: E 632
 
Krplje so lesena priprava za lažjo hojo v globokem snegu. Sestavljene so iz ovalnega lesenega loka in iz z vitrami prepletene površine v loku. Na čevelj se pritrdijo z jermenom.

				KRPLJE<br>1938, Dragovanja vas<br>Inv. št.: E 632

Foto: Branko Babić

PRESLICA
Prva polovica 20. stoletja, Vinica
Inv. št.: 1902
 
Preslica je lesena, lahko z rezbarijami okrašena priprava za predenje. Nanjo je predica priveže povesmo prediva. (Če prede samo s preslico, jo drži v rokah ali jo zatakne za pas.) Po iznajdbi kolovrata je preslica postala njegov sestavni del. Okrasno oblikovane dolge preslice za predenje na vreteno s suličastim nastavkom so se najdlje ohranile v Beli krajini in Istri. Rezljani vzorci so bili največkrat geometrijski, osnovo ornamenta so pogosto predstavljale šestilne rozete.

				PRESLICA<br>Prva polovica 20. stoletja, Vinica<br>Inv. št.: 1902

Foto: Branko Babić

TKANICA
začetek 20. stoletja, Dolenjci
Inv. št.: E 841
 
Tkanica je ročno tkan volnen pas z vzdolžnimi progami. Tkani pasovi so bili značilnost panonskega oblačilnega območja predvsem v drugi polovici 19. stoletja. Pas sodi med najstarejše oblačilne dodatke. Opravlja lahko uporabno in okrasno nalogo.


				TKANICA<br>
začetek 20. stoletja, Dolenjci<br>
Inv. št.: E 841

foto: Branko Babić

PREDPASNIK/PREGAČA
konec 19. stoletja, Bojanci
Inv. št.: 624
 
Pregača je ročno tkan volnen predpasnik. Tkana je iz raznobarvne volne s tehniko »klečanja« ali »iveranja«. Gre za način tkanja z bogato okrasitvijo z drobnimi in velikimi geometrijskimi ornamenti, ki si sledijo v vodoravnih nizih. Okrašena je s srmo ali resami na robovih. Bila je del ženske noše pravoslavnega prebivalstva v Beli krajini.

				PREDPASNIK/PREGAČA<br>konec 19. stoletja, Bojanci<br>Inv. št.: 624

Foto: Branko Babić

ČEBELNI KOŠ
začetek 20. stoletja, Drašiči
Inv. št.: E 121
 
Čebelni koš (košnica) je oblika čebeljega panja, bivališča za čebeljo družino. Čebelji koš je zvonaste oblike ter je pleten iz slame in viter.

				ČEBELNI KOŠ<br>začetek 20. stoletja, Drašiči<br>Inv. št.: E 121			Foto: Branko Babić

BELOKRANJSKA PISANICA
Petdeseta leta 20. stoletja, Purga
Inv. št.: 1192
 
Pisanica je barvano in z ornamenti okrašeno jajce. Belokranjske pisanice so okrašene v batični tehniki – ornament se s tekočim voskom in s posebnim pisalom »pisačem« napiše na podlago, povoščeno mesto ostane v osnovni beli ali rdeči barvi, nazadnje pa se pisanice potopijo v črno barvo. Nekoč so bile pisanice povezane s praznovanjem velike noči, danes se izdelujejo tudi kot turistični spominki. 

				BELOKRANJSKA PISANICA<br>Petdeseta leta 20. stoletja, Purga<br>Inv. št.: 1192

Foto: Branko Babić

SKRINJA ZA ŽITO
začetek 20. stoletja, Bela krajina
Inv. št.:  E 526
 
Skrinja za žito je navadno stala v kašči, pri manjših hišah pa tudi v veži ali na podstrešju. Pri najstarejših skrinjah je šlo za tesarski izdelek brez uporabe žage. Podobno obliko, okraske in način izdelave najdemo po vsej južni in vzhodni Evropi. Glavni konstrukcijski elementi so štirje vogalni navpični plohi, ki so z dveh strani navpično izžlebljeni. V tem žlebu so naložene deske ena vrh druge. Gre za enega najstarejših načinov izdelave, ki je značilen tudi za skrinje z dvokapno streho. 

				SKRINJA ZA ŽITO<br>začetek 20. stoletja, Bela krajina<br>Inv. št.:  E 526

Foto: Branko Babić

ŽRMLJE
19.  stoletje, Cerkvišče
Inv. št.: E 358
 
Žrmlje so ročni ali domači mlin – naprava s kamnoma za mletje žita. Žrmlje s popolnim krožnim gibanjem so postale splošno razširjene v rimski dobi. Na Slovenskem so jih na mnogih kmečkih domačijah kljub uvedbi naprednejših načinov mletja uporabljali vse do sredine 20. stoletja. Priprava moke z žrmljami je bila najpogosteje žensko delo. 

				ŽRMLJE<br>19.  stoletje, Cerkvišče<br>Inv. št.: E 358

Foto: Branko Babić

ČELEŠNIK
19. stoletje, Sinji Vrh
Inv. št.: E 1544
 
Čelešnik je kovano, različno zvito in včasih prav umetelno oblikovano železo, ki ima zgoraj klešče ali vzmet (feder). Tega so s pritiskom roke razprli, da je zgrabil in stisnil trsko – luč. Železo je bilo nasajeno na kolec, ta pa je bil zabit v lesen panjiček ali v razvejano drevesno korenino. Trsko so prižgali, da je razsvetljevala prostor. Čelešnik so uporabljali vse do uveljavitve petrolejk. 

				ČELEŠNIK<br>19. stoletje, Sinji Vrh<br>Inv. št.: E 1544

Foto: Branko Babić

ČUTARA
okoli leta 1854, Stara Lipa
Inv. št.: 1995
 
Čutara je diskasta lesena obročasta posoda za pijačo. Uporabljali so jo predvsem popotniki in kmetje, če so delali daleč od doma. Nosili so jih privezane za pas ali na jermenu ali vrvici prek ramena. Med kmečkim prebivalstvom so se čutare širile od 18. stoletja dalje, v uporabi pa so bile do sredine 20. stoletja. 

				ČUTARA<br>okoli leta 1854, Stara Lipa<br>Inv. št.: 1995

Foto: Branko Babić

ROVAŠI
začetek 20. stoletja, Drašiči
Inv. št.: E 769


Rovaš je lesena palica, pogosto sestavljena iz dveh delov, na katero so z zarezami označevali predvsem količinske pravice in obveznosti članov skupnosti. V Beli krajini poznamo rovaše predvsem v povezavi s soseskinimi zidanicami. Razširjeni so bili po vsej Evropi. Zaradi preprostosti so bili primerni tudi za nepismene. Še danes poznamo zvezo "na rovaš" - primer: "Pri njem ima še nekaj na rovašu", kar pomeni, da mu je še nekaj dolžan. 

				ROVAŠI<br>začetek 20. stoletja, Drašiči<br>Inv. št.: E 769

Foto: Branko Babić

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