dr.Matjaž Figelj: Dve, tri o moralnih zagatah

Objavil/a Dajana Babič, dne 2021-04-07 ob 11:28:09

Marko je imel včeraj 69. rojstni dan. Bil je dan, enak dnevom zadnjih dveh let. Zjutraj v trgovino po kruh, mortadelo in mleko, zajtrk ob desetih, nato ležanje na kavču, pozno popoldne ocvrto jajce v ponvi, ki je ostala mastna še od prejšnjega dne, zvečer mleko za potepuško mačko, ki se vselej ob isti uri pritepe pred vrata. Današnje jutro je Marka prebudilo z upanjem. »Marko, kaj vas je po dolgem času prineslo v ambulanto?« »Hmm… to življenje je en dolgčas. Pomagajte mi, rad bi umrl.«

Sodelavka se je cepila proti covidu-19, jaz pa ne. Oba sva zadovoljna.
Barbara in Andraž sta molče sedela za mizo in zrla predse. Skodelici kave sta ostali nedotaknjeni… Barbara in Andraž sta deset let ponosno in uspešno vodila družinsko gostilno, ki jima jo je prepustil Barbarin oče. Zadnjega pol leta je zaprta, zaradi vladnega odloka. Nimata več izbire, prodala jo bosta…
Kaj je skupnega trem zgodbam, ki nas izzivajo z vprašanjem o evtanaziji, z vprašanjem o svobodnem odločanju glede cepljenja proti covidu-19 in z vprašanjem o prepovedi izvajanja dejavnosti zaradi obvladovanja epidemije? Pri iskanju odgovorov na omenjena vprašanja nam raziskave in matematične formule niso v pomoč. Tudi strokovna znanja ne. Omenjena vprašanja namreč niso strokovna vprašanja. Zgodbe nas soočajo z moralnimi vprašanji, z moralnimi dilemami. Kako jih bomo rešili, je odvisno od naših vrednot, od tega, kaj smo pripravljeni žrtvovati in česa ne.
Ljudje so, da bi si olajšali življenje v skupnosti, odgovore na preprosta družbeno-moralna vprašanja poiskali že zdavnaj. Vsi na primer vemo, da je krasti nemoralno. Sodobno življenje je kompleksno, izziva nas s kompleksnejšimi moralnimi dilemami. Da bi jih uspešno rešili, v zadovoljstvo vseh, se moramo o možnih rešitvah pogovarjati in usklajevati naša mnenja. Pri tem so nam v pomoč poznavalci etike, ki nam z znanjem etike postavljajo moralne okvire, znotraj katerih uspešneje iščemo rešitve.
Vprašanje o evtanaziji že vrsto let vznemirja in polarizira našo družbo. Evtanazija je dejanje, ko zdravnik, na bolnikovo željo, bolnika ubije. Odgovor na vprašanje, ali naj kot družba ljudem omogočimo evtanazijo, je le navidezno preprost: vsak ima pravico odločati o svojem življenju. Toda ali bi z lahkoto ustregli prošnji 69-letnega Marka, ki je telesno zdrav in »fit«, a je naveličan življenja in vas zato prosi, da ga ubijete? Priznajmo si, bili bi v zadregi. Poglobljeno razmišljanje o evtanaziji nam razkriva številne dileme. Naj evtanazijo omogočimo samo trpečim bolnikom v zadnjih mesecih življenja ali tudi ljudem, ki trpijo in niso v zadnjem obdobju življenja, a si kljub temu želijo, da bi umrli? Ali trpljenje povzroča samo neobvladljiva bolečina in oteženo dihanje ali tudi osamljenost in izguba dostojanstva? Ali imamo zaradi pravice do svobodnega odločanja o življenju tudi pravico do evtanazije? V proces evtanazije je namreč vselej vključen zdravnik, ki na željo bolnika postane njegov ubijalec. Argumentov za in proti je veliko. Zakaj se bolnik zato raje ne bi odločil za samomor? Toda vreči se s stolpnice je grozna rešitev. Zato se v strokovni literaturi, ki obravnava vprašanje evtanazije, omenja možnost prostovoljnega prenehanja hranjenja in uživanja tekočin, ki je kot oblika samomora, umirjena in morda sprejemljivejša rešitev za končanje življenja.
Razmišljanja o evtanaziji porajajo nešteto vprašanj, na katera bomo morali odgovoriti, če želimo, da postane evtanazija možnost, ki jo ponuja naš zdravstveni sistem. Ne bo enostavno. Glede na to, da se mnogi težko soočajo z dejstvom, da smo umrljivi, da gojimo številne zadrege že do paliativne oskrbe in da zadnje leto vztrajno ponavljamo frazo, da vsako življenje šteje, menim, da bo kompleksna dilema o evtanaziji za našo družbo še zelo dolgo trd oreh.
Moralno vprašanje glede cepljenja proti covidu-19 je veliko bolj preprosto. Odločitev, da je cepljenje proti covidu-19 prostovoljno, je pravilna. Zdaj moramo le še vsi razumeti, da se moramo spoštovati, ne glede na to, kako se bomo odločali glede cepljenja. Saj razumemo, imamo možnost svobodne izbire. Nekateri razmišljajo, da bi moralo biti cepljenje proti covidu-19 obvezno. Na podlagi doslej znanih dejstev o cepivih proti covidu-19 in vedenja, kaj je v medicini moralno in kaj ne, je neizpodbitno, da je ideja o obveznem cepljenju proti covidu-19 nemoralna.
Prepoved izvajanja dejavnosti z namenom obvladovanja epidemije, ki je/bo mnoge porinila v eksistencialno stisko, jim zlomila duha, družbi pa povzročila ogromno ekonomsko škodo, je verjetno najpomembnejše moralno vprašanje, ki ga moramo rešiti čim prej. Koliko Barbar in Andražev, ki so jim odločevalci z odlokom o prepovedi izvajanja dejavnosti uničili življenje, je v naši družbi? Je moralno žrtvovati eksistenco posameznikov za dobro družbe? In to zaradi epidemije bolezni, ki ima 0,27-odstotno umrljivost. Je tudi prodajanje megle povezano z moralo? Je. Z nemoralo.
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Dajana  Babič
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