Divjad v porastu, kmetijstvo v upadu

Objavil/a KMEČKI GLAS Franc Fortuna, dne 2022-01-14 ob 13:52:55

»V letošnji zimi so škode po divjih prašičih enormne. Na območju občin Komen, Sežana, Divača in Hrpelje – Kozina, ki ga pokriva kmetijska svetovalna služba Sežana, ugotavljamo, da na travinju doslej takih škod še ni bilo. Svetovalci ocenjujemo, da je od okrog 12.000 hektarjev travnikov in pašnikov polovica površin poškodovanih. Tu skoraj ni razlik med Krasom in Brkini, vendar so v Brkinih poškodovane večje površine. Vsi ti travniki so zdaj videti kot preorane njive. Na Brezovem Brdu, v Javorju, Kovčicah in okoliških vaseh, pa tudi na območju Vrhpoljskega polja, Prešnice ter Vrhov in Krasa domačini ne pomnijo takih škod.

Pridelovalci tarnajo, saj so lansko pomlad škode že sanirali, sedaj pa so te še večje, in sicer tako na površinah, ki so pognojene, kot na negnojenih. Svetovalci in kmetje ugotavljamo, da je divjadi preveč, zato se bo pričelo opuščanje kmetovanja. To pa bo gotovo privedlo do še več zaraščenih površin in s tem se bo številčnost divjadi spet povečala. Poleg divjih prašičev škodo povzročajo še jelenjad, medvedi, volkovi in šakali. Kmetje pravijo, da jim ni omogočeno, da bi kmetovali in pridelovali hrano,« nam je povedala Milena Štolfa z Oddelka za kmetijsko svetovanje pri KGZ Nova Gorica, izpostava Sežana.

O izjemnem porastu škod po divjih prašičih smo lani že poročali tudi iz Vipavske doline in Primorja, kjer se letos pojavljajo škode na vrtninah, ki jih poleg divjih prašičev povzročajo še srnjad, jelenjad, nutrije, zajci ipd. Da o škodah zaradi popašenosti travinja in objedenosti mladja v gozdovih, ki jih nihče ne priznava in ne povrača škode, niti ne govorimo.

Poleg najpogostejših škodnih dogodkov, ki jih v Sloveniji skozi vse leto povzročajo divji prašiči (v letu 2020 je bilo po podatkih letnega poročila Lovske zveze Slovenije (LZS) prijavljenih 1696 primerov), pa so najpogostejše še škode, ki jih povzroča navadni jelen (2020 jih je bilo prijavljenih 210). Če pogledamo uradne podatke iz letnih poročil LZS, se je število prijavljenih škodnih dogodkov po divjem prašiču iz 2669 v letu 2012 zmanjšalo na 1696 v letu 2020. Za lani podatki še niso na voljo. Med lovno divjadjo, ki jo letno odstrelijo lovske družine, krepko prednjači srnjad, in sicer v povprečju okrog 30.000 osebkov. Druga najpogostejša vrsta po odstrelu je lisica z 11.000 do 15.000 osebki letno. Naslednji pa je divji prašič, katerega letni odstrel, ki je zadnja leta navzgor neomejen, znaša med 7683 (2018) in 11.895 (2019) osebkov. Najvišja odstrela divjih prašičev sta bila v letu 2012 (11.419) in 2019, najnižji pa v letu 2018 in 2015 (7696). Odstrel navadnega jelena se v teh letih giblje med 3000 in 4000 osebki.

Vendar ti podatki veljajo za celotno Slovenijo. V realnosti pa so po posameznih območjih škode katastrofalne in v močnem porastu. In to velja tudi za škode po navadnem jelenu. Še posebej pa je porast škod povezana tudi z območji državnih lovišč s posebnim namenom. Kakšna je realna številčnost divjih prašičev in jelenjadi, pravzaprav nihče ne ve, zagotovo znan je le podatek o odstrelu.

Da je številčnost divjadi po posameznih območjih prekomerna, pa zagotovo ni le krivda lovcev, ki se spopadajo s posledicami neugodne starostne strukture članstva in današnjega načina življenja, pri katerem je časa za delovno aktivne vse manj, odhod v pokoj, ko bi bilo časa nekaj več, pa je vse poznejši. Svoje prida še lovni turizem, od katerega se preživljajo predvsem državna lovišča in ki mora novodobnemu lovskemu turistu omogočiti čim večjo izbiro in čim krajši čas do strela. Da o samih internih predpisih lovskih organizacij, ki otežujejo odstrel, ne govorimo. Tudi številčnost članstva, ki se giblje okrog 20.000 in je v rahlem upadu, ni v prid zmanjšanju divjadi. Da danes postaneš lovec, je potrebnih najmanj 2500 evrov (lovski tečaj, uniforma, orožje) preden sploh pritisneš na petelina.

Nestimulativne so tudi odkupne cene divjačine, čeprav je ta prirejena praktično zastonj na zasebni (kmetovi) zemlji in z zasebno (kmetovo) krmo. In prav takšno je načrtovanje odstrela, ki temelji na uradnih podatkih o prijavljenih škodnih dogodkih. Dejstvo pa je, da so se kmetje naveličali prijavljati vsako škodo ter da vse prijavljene škode niso zavedene v uradne evidence. Svoje bo v prihodnje dodalo še dvoletno načrtovanje (doslej vsakoletno) odvzema divjadi iz narave, ki bo dejansko omogočilo, da se bo prvo leto divjad pošteno razmnožila, v drugem letu pa se bo izpolnil načrtovan odstrel, ki pa ne bo temeljil na dejanski številčnosti divjadi, še manj na realnih škodah.

 

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