Sobna azaleja

Objavil/a Moj mali svet, dne 2020-03-25 ob 14:06:12

Doma je na Kitajskem in so jo prvič odkrili leta 1708. tako kot druge azaleje je tudi ta predstavnik družine rododendronov, ki šteje okoli petsto znanih vrst, raztresenih po vsej Evropi, Aziji, severni Ameriki in Avstraliji.
Če zelo skrbimo za rastlino, jo bomo ohranili dalj časa, vendar moramo ves čas paziti, da ima dovolj vlage, kajti če je vsaj enkrat na dan ne navlažimo z mehko vodo, izgubi liste.  

V naravi cvetijo spomladi, po navadi jih silijo, da cvetijo ob novoletnih praznikih in v prvih mesecih leta. Niso odporne rastline, zato jih ne moremo za stalno posaditi na vrt, saj ne bodo preživele zime. Poleti pa jih damo obvezno na vrt ali vsaj na balkon. Rastejo zelo počasi, zato so dokaj drage. Večje rastline lahko z obrezovanjem oblikujemo v najrazličnejše oblike.

Druga vrsta, ki uspeva kot sobna rastlina, je Azalea japonica ali A. obtusum. Je višja rastlina z redkimi listi, toda z zelo lepimi nežnimi cvetovi mehkih pastelnih tonov. Je nekoliko odpornejša kot njena razkošna sestrična A. indica. Rastline A. japonica ni tako lahko siliti k cvetenju kot A. indica in je po navadi ne dobimo v cvetličarnah vse do njenega naravnega obdobja cvetenja, torej od februarja dalje. Nekatere sorte so odporne in lahko uspevajo na prostem celo v hladnejših podnebnih razmerah.

Izberimo azalejo običajne oblike s številnimi poganjki, s cvetovi, ki se bodo šele odprli. Prepričajmo se, da listi ne odpadajo.


Velikost: Po navadi prodajajo rastline, ki imajo v času cvetenja premer 12 do 38 cm, steblo pa je visoko od 7 do 30 cm. Posamezne rastline so lahko večje, posebno če so temu primerno oskrbovane.

Hitrost rasti: Zelo počasi rastejo, najmanjše rastline v prodaji so stare najmanj dve leti.

Čas cvetenja: navadno aprila, maja, lahko pa jih silimo k cvetenju od jeseni dalje.

Vonj: Nimajo ga; med vrtnimi vrstami pa so znane vonjave azaleje.

Svetloba: Svetla mesta, toda ne na soncu.

Temperatura: Pozimi je najustreznejša 13 stopinj Celzija. V prostorih z višjo temperaturo se lahko posušijo in hitro odcvetijo.

Zalivanje: med cvetenjem zahteva precej mehke vode, navadno vsak drug dan. Rastlina ne sme biti nikoli nezalita, kar moramo preveriti vsaj dvakrat na teden. Če je prst presuha, potopimo lonček z rastlino v mlačno vodo za toliko časa, da iz nje ne bodo več izhajali mehurčki.

Gnojenje: Vodi za zalivanje dodamo poleti, ko je rastlina v cvetu, vsakih 14 dni tekoče gnojilo. Uporabimo mehko vodo.

Vlaga: Vsaj enkrat na teden rosimo rastline z mehko vodo, lonček pa postavimo v podstavek z vlažnim peskom.

Čiščenje: Azaleji moramo sami odstranjevati suhe in ovenele liste. Listnega loščila ne uporabljamo.

Ozračje: za kratek čas lahko stoji kjerkoli. Ne sme biti izpostavljena mrzlemu prepihu, posebno če smo jo pravkar zalili.

Vrsta zemlje: Kakovosten šotni kompost.

Presajanje: čas za presajanje je po poletnem obdobju počivanja. Bolje je, če rastlino posadimo v manjši lonček in jo dobro pognojimo. Primernejši so glineni lončki kot plastični, ker vpijejo več vode.

Rez: Potrebna je le zato, da rastlina obdrži lepo obliko. Odstranimo dolga stebla in zelene poganjke, ki se pojavijo med cvetnimi popki.

Razmnoževanje: Z vršički kot potaknjenci, toda to prepustimo raje strokovnjakom.

Življenjska doba: Več let, če jo poleti skrbno presadimo na prosto.

Spremljevalne rastline: majhne azaleje so lepe v skupinskih zasaditvah, večje pa lepše, če so same.

Posebnosti: Lahko jih gojimo v neogrevanem rastlinjaku, toda v stanovanju jih je težko imeti dalj časa, ker ni dovolj vlage, večina stanovanj pa je sploh pretoplih. Če imamo možnost, jih takoj po cvetenju prenesemo v rastlinjak.

Težave pri gojenju azaleje

Listi so suhi in odpadajo.

Prevroče je in presuho. Rosimo z mehko vodo. Redno zalivamo in prestavimo na hladnejše mesto.

Cvetovi se ne odpirajo.

Rastlino preveč zalivamo ali pa stoji po zalivanju na prepihu. Pustimo, da se osuši in jo prestavimo na mesto, kjer ni prepiha, dokler se ne popravi. Potem zalivamo manj.

Rumeni madeži na listih, na spodnji strani listov pa je pajčevina.

Rdeči pajek. Pršimo z ustreznim insekticidom po navodilih. Povečamo vlažnost.

Beli sledovi in rovi na listih, včasih tudi gosenice.

Listni zavijač azaleje. Pršimo z ustreznim insekticidom po navodilih.

Mladi listi so majhni, ni cvetov.

Rastlina potrebuje gnojilo.


Besedilo in fotografije: Marjetka Hrovatin

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