Zgodnji krompir

Objavil/a Moj mali svet, dne 2020-03-25 ob 14:56:53

Skrb za dober pridelek se začne že v zimskih mesecih, ko izbiramo sorte, ki jih bomo pridelovali v sezoni. Na izbiro sorte pri manjših pridelovalcih pomembno vpliva okus krompirja in namen uporabe (ali želimo krompir za pečenje ali kuhanje). Pomembno vlogo pri izbiri sorte ima tudi ponudba v lokalnih trgovinah ter videz gomoljev, ki jih ponujajo na prodajnih policah. Pri izbiri sorte zgodnjega krompirja sta pomembna podatka tudi občutljivost posamezne sorte za bolezni (krompirjeva plesen, Phytophthora infestans) in ali je posamezna sorta nagnjena k napakam, kot sta na primer steklavost in rjava pegavost.

Nakaljevanje gomoljev

Skrb za dober pridelek se začne že z nakaljevanjem gomoljev in saditvijo krompirja v primerno ogreta tla. Cilj pridelovalca je hiter vznik in hitra začetna rast nasada po sajenju, saj se tako lahko izognemo številnim težavam v pridelavi. V želji, da bi krompir čim prej posadili, gomoljev pogosto sploh ne nakalimo ali pa sadimo gomolje, na katerih so se očesca komaj prebudila.

Nakaljujemo predvsem zgodnje sorte, s čemer dosežemo, da krompir vzklije tudi dva tedna prej kot sicer.

Priporočljivo je tudi nakaljevanje nekaterih zelo poznih sort in sort, ki imajo počasno začetno rast. Priporočena temperatura nakaljevanja je od 12 do 15 °C. Pri teh temperaturah nakaljevanje traja dalj časa, vzkali več očes in na vrtu ali njivi zato požene več stebel. Nakaljevanje pri nižjih temperaturah priporočamo za tiste zgodnejše sorte, ki oblikujejo manjše število debelejših gomoljev. Ostale zgodnje sorte običajno nakaljujemo pri višjih temperaturah (med 15 in 20 °C). Tako dosežemo, da kali manj očes, požene manj stebelj, oblikuje se manj gomoljev, ki pa so debelejši.

				Nakaljeni gomolji poženejo prej.			Nakaljeni gomolji poženejo prej.

Bistvena je temperatura tal

Za pridelavo zgodnjega krompirja poskušamo gomolje spomladi posaditi čim bolj zgodaj. Pri odločitvi o ustreznosti termina za sajenje je odločilen podatek temperatura tal. Praviloma krompirja ne sadimo v tla, če niso ogreta na vsaj 8 do 10 °C. Le s sajenjem gomoljev v dovolj ogreta tla bomo dosegli hiter vznik in nemoteno rast krompirja.

Če sadimo v ne dovolj ogreta tla, bodo posajeni gomolji v hladnih tleh izgubili energijo za vznik in propadli.

Posledice bodo vidne kmalu po vzniku in kasneje ob sklenitvi vrst, ko bodo v vrsti ostala mnoga prazna mesta.

V času sajenja krompirja nas v zadnjih letih pogosto spremljajo stresne razmere. Da bi se jim čim bolj izognili, sadimo gomolje debeline od 35 do 55 mm. Debelejše seme ima večjo zalogo energije in lahko uspešneje kljubuje začetnim sušnim razmeram, premokrim ali prehladnim tlom.


Ne režite gomoljev

Zaradi nevarnosti širjenja boleznimi med semenskimi gomolji odsvetujemo rezanje gomoljev. Večina semena je namreč bolj ali manj okužena z bakterijskimi boleznimi, ki povzročajo znake črne noge ali mokre gnilobe.

Krompir v kolobarju običajno sadimo na prvo ali drugo poljino, ki je bila v letu sajenja ali leto prej gnojena z organskimi gnojili.

Krompir, paradižnik in jajčevci so sorodniki, zato naj za krompirjem v kolobarju ne sledijo paradižnik ali jajčevci.

Tako se bomo lahko izognili prenosu nekaterih bolezni in škodljivcev iz enega v drugo leto.

Tam, kjer imamo težave s strunami (ličinke hroščev pokalic, Elateridae), v času sajenja krompirja uporabimo bodisi insekticid, ki vsebuje entomopatogeno glivo Beauveria bassiana (njegova uporaba je dovoljena tudi v ekološki pridelavi), ali različne izboljševalce tal, ki imajo vpliv tudi na talne škodljivce. Vsekakor pred uporabo insekticidov ali izboljševalcev tal natančno preberite navodila za uporabo in dosledno upoštevajte navedbe.

				Zgodnje sorte prekrivamo z vlakninastimi prekrivkami.			Zgodnje sorte prekrivamo z vlakninastimi prekrivkami.


Pregosto sajenje

V domačih vrtovih krompir večinoma sadimo pregosto. Priporočena medvrstna razdalja je 65 do 70 cm. Tako bo na voljo dovolj zemlje, da bomo kasneje lahko vrste tudi osipali. V vrsti posadimo gomolje 30 do 35 cm narazen, kar pomeni od tri do največ štiri gomolje na dolžinski meter. Če bomo gomolje posadili tako, da bodo vsaj pet do osem cm globoko, bomo lahko pred vznikom osipavanje tudi opustili, sicer lahko krompir malo osujemo že na začetku, takoj po sajenju, ko naredimo manjše grebene, ki jih bomo dokončno oblikovali ob prvem osipavanju, ko bodo rastline visoke od 10 do 15 cm.

Zgodnje sorte prekrivamo

Zgodnje sorte krompirja, ki jih gojimo v vrtovih, so večinoma primerne za neposredno prekrivanje z vlakninastimi prekrivkami. Posevke prekrijemo takoj po sajenju. Za prekrivanje uporabimo vlakninaste ali koprenaste prekrivke, s katerimi ustvarimo ugodnejšo mikroklimo in omogočimo hiter vznik nakaljenih gomoljev. Istočasno tudi varujemo vznikle poganjke pred morebitnimi nizkimi temperaturami.Prekrivko pri robovih dobro pričvrstimo, da je veter ne odkrije, saj jo bo strgal ter poškodoval mlade poganjke, kar bi spet lahko pripomoglo k okužbam za različnimi bolezenskimi povzročitelji.

Po sajenju spremljajte pojav in širjenje plevelov v posevku. Plevele pri pridelavi krompirja v domačih vrtovih običajno uravnavamo z redno pletvijo, okopavanjem in osipanjem.

Pridelovalci pa si v boju s plevelom pogosto tudi pri pridelavi krompirja pomagate z uporabo zastirk (bodisi iz slame, pokošene trave, ovčje volne in podobno).

(Se nadaljuje.)

Besedilo in fotografije: Iris Škerbot

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