Višanje cen energije na globalni ravni je del iste zgodbe kot globalna »pandemija«

Objavil/a Stara Pravda, dne 2021-10-13 ob 09:17:23

Največji slovenski trgovec z energenti Petrol je napovedal, da se bosta prvega grudna občutno dvignili cene elektrike in zemeljskega plina. Temu naj bi sledili še drugi ponudniki energentov na našem trgu. Medtem strokovnjaki trdijo, da pri nas ni nobenega razloga za višanje cen elektrike.

Največji slovenski energetski trgovec Petrol bo s 1. grudnom za do 35 odstotkov zvišal cene elektrike za gospodinjstva, cene zemeljskega plina pa za 12 odstotkov. Razlog za podražitev energentov naj bi bile razmere na mednarodnih trgih.

"Zadnje čase smo priča izjemnim razmeram na trgih surovin in energentov, kjer cene iz dneva v dan dosegajo rekordno visoke ravni," so zapisali pri Petrolu. Cene energentov za dobavo v letu 2022 so se ekstremno povišale: električna energija za več kot 175 odstotkov, cena plina za skoraj 300 odstotkov, nafta za okrog 65 odstotkov, emisijski kuponi pa za več kot 125 odstotkov.

Gre preprosto za špekulacije na globalni ravni in za ekstremen učinek »tržnega gospodarstva«, ki lahko cene požene v nebo, v kolikor ponudba ne sledi povpraševanju. In ko je to vodeno iz enega mesta, smo priča dogodkom, s kakršnimi s počasi soočamo.

Posebno poglavje so emisijski kuponi – dovoljenja za izpuste ene tone ogljikovega dioksida ali drugega toplogrednega plina enake mase –, ki so medtem zaradi politike EU-ja že dlje časa v rastočem trendu.

"V Petrolu kljub burnemu dogajanju na trgu ostajamo zavezani ponudbi kakovostne, zanesljive in ugodne oskrbe z električno energijo in zemeljskim plinom," so zapisali v največjem trgovcu in dodali: "Do povišanja cen odjema električne energije in zemeljskega plina bo zaradi razmer na trgu sicer prišlo ‒ nov cenik bo za naše gospodinjske in male poslovne odjemalce začel veljati s 1. decembrom ‒ a nam je, čeprav na tržno dogajanje nimamo vpliva, z učinkovitim nabavnim procesom uspelo zagotoviti konkurenčne cene energentov tudi za naslednje leto."

Na napoved višjih cen električne energije se je že odzval ekonomist Maks Tajnikar z ljubljanske Ekonomske fakultete: "Ali so se povečale cene velenjskega premoga za TEŠ, jedrskega goriva za NEK in plače delavcev v elektrarnah na Dravi, Savi in Soči ali pa je Petrol monopolist, ki služi na račun naše energetske odvisnosti od tujine ter jo zato tudi ustvarja?"

Tajnikar je za MMC RTV Slovenija povedal, da je želel opozoriti kako ni čisto logično, da se draži električna energija, saj Slovenija večino elektrike za svoje potrebe proizvede v Teš-u, jedrski elektrarni v Krškem in v hidroelektrarnah.

V letu 2020 je bila pokritost porabe električne energije z domačo proizvodnjo 92,6- odstotna, kar je blizu dejanske samooskrbe. Zaradi manjkajočih dobrih sedmih odstotkov elektrike, pa se cene na slovenskem trgu ne bi smele tako dvigniti. Toda proizvajalci elektrike so vpeti v svetovni trg, kjer cene zelo rasejo in zato proizvedeno elektriko raje prodajo po višjih cenah, s tem pa imajo večji dobiček. Dejstvo, da smo  večino proizvodnih kapacitet elektrike v Sloveniji dejansko plačali davkoplačevalci, ob tem ne igra nobene vloge. Suženj pač mora biti tiho in predvsem poravnavati naložene dajatve in davščine ter plačevati račune.

Struktura deležev proizvedene elektrike v Sloveniji kaže, da imamo tri velike stebre proizvodnje: 35 odstotkov elektrike v Sloveniji je bilo proizvedene iz obnovljivih virov, 26,6 odstotka iz fosilnih goriv in 38,4 odstotka iz jedrskega goriva.

Doktor Tajnikar je to komentiral z naslednjimi besedami: »Stroškovno se tu ni zgodilo čisto nič. Premog je enako drag, kot je bil. Teš ima izgubo zaradi emisijskih kuponov, ne zaradi same produkcije elektrike. Tega se v javnosti ne poudarja. Sama produkcija elektrike v Tešu je donosna. Ko prištejete emisijske kupone, pa dobite to veliko izgubo. Jedrska energija se ni dražila. Glavni operativni strošek v hidroelektrarnah je strošek dela, ki pa se tudi ni povečal. Za višanje domačih cen električne energije ni nobenega razloga«.

"Kriza z energijo bo trajala, vse dokler se svetovno gospodarstvo ne bo stabiliziralo v svetovnih okvirih. To pa zagotovo pomeni vse naslednje leto. To tudi pomeni, da bomo imeli pritisk na cene energentov, na cene surovin, tudi na kakšne proizvode, kjer so ozka grla, kot se zdaj dogaja s čipi, verjetno do konca drugega leta. Takšnih močnih pritiskov država z davčno politiko ne more kompenzirati v celoti. V določeni meri pa lahko. Tisto, kar izgubi v kriznih časih, lahko nadomesti v časih, ko so cene nizke. Cene zelo nihajo in imajo svoje cikle. Nobene cene, ne surovin, ne energentov ..., ne gredo samo navzgor," dodaja Tajnikar.

Razprava o višanju cen energentov poglobljeno poteka tudi na ravni EU. Evropska komisija poudarja, da je rast cen energije povezana zlasti z rastjo svetovnega povpraševanja po sprostitvi primeža pandemije in manjše ponudbe, ki se še prilagaja na povečano povpraševanje, ter z vremenom, manj pa z evropskimi politikami za zmanjšanje izpustov.

Evropska komisija naj bi danes razgrnila predloge za spoprijemanje z visokimi cenami energije, ki so bistven dejavnik rasti inflacije in predstavila nabor ukrepov, ki so v skladu z zakonodajo EU-ja, članice pa bi jih lahko uporabile za kratkoročno ukrepanje. Po podatkih evropskega statističnega urada Eurostata so se cene energije meseca kimavca na letni ravni povečale za 17,4 odstotka.

Skupina desetih držav članic EU, vključno s Slovenijo, je v pismu Evropski komisiji pozvala k priznanju jedrske energije kot nizkoogljičnega načina pridobivanja energije. Podpisnice pisma so opozorile, da je jedrska energija dostopen, stabilen in neodvisen vir energije, ki bi lahko varoval evropske potrošnike pred poskokom cen in bi jo morali vključiti v strategijo povezave na poti k podnebno nevtralni družbi.

Pobudnica pisma je Francija, med podpisniki pa so ob Sloveniji še Bolgarija, Češka, Finska, Hrvaška, Madžarska, Poljska, Slovenska republika in Romunija.

STA in Vard Lipovšek, 13. vinotok 2021

 

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