Nedolžni otroci in tepežni dan

Objavil/a Ana Kos, dne 2013-12-28 ob 07:43:38

Za danes piše v koledarju: Nedolžni otroci.
Zame že od malega je to bil spomin na uboge otroke, ki jih je dal pomoriti kralj Herod. Kralj Herod namreč se je zbal za svoj položaj, ko je slišal, da se je rodil novi kralj. Ker ni vedel kaj natančnejšega, kje tega novorojenega kralja dobiti, je dal pobiti fantke v starosti do dveh let. Jezusa ni našel, njegova družina je bežala v Egipt (begunci, kako sodobno se to sliši!), tam so živeli do Jezusovih treh let oz. do smrti kralja Heroda. Potem so se vrnili na svoj dom v Nazaret. (Matejev evangelij, 2. poglavje)
Današnji dan se imenuje tudi tepežni dan (pametiva), vendar ima tepežkanje čisto drug izvor. Cerkev je poskusila razne obrede spraviti v okvir cerkvenih praznikov.
Niko Kuret v Prazničnem letu Slovencev (2. knjiga) pravi, da ni bilo vse prav posrečeno.



Pa poglejmo malo v zgodovino tega običaja:
Prvotno je bila to fantovska navada, tepli so dekleta, tudi svoje dekle - z namenom, da bi bila plodna, kajti vsepovsod je veljala rodovitnost za največjo vrednoto. Roditi otroke je bila ženina častna naloga in hkrati odlika. Ponekod so bila dekleta vsa lisasta od udarcev. (Danes to o rodovitnosti ne velja več vsepovsod, velja pa še vedno pri preprostejših ljudstvih.)
Otroško tepežkanje izhaja delno iz te fantovske šege, ki počasi izumira, delno pa ima otroško tepežkanje zelo stare svoje korenine.
Kako naj bi udarec s šibo prinašal rodnost? Kako naj bi posredoval življenjsko moč?
Gre za neko magično dejanje, za nek čar. Gre za udarce s "šibo življenja", tepli so ženske, samice domačih živali in sadno drevje (po W. Mannhardtu). Najstarejša omemba tepežkanja je iz Nemčije (8. stoletje).
Življenjska moč, ki jo hrani rastlina, naj bi prešla na človeka, ki se ga dotaknemo. (Isti pomen imajo tudi krašenja domov z zimzelenim rastlinjem, božični drevešček, cvetnonedeljska butara.)
V Srednji Evropi se je tepežkanje uveljavilo na dan nedolžnih otrok (Innocentes), o tem zgodovinskem zločinu sem pisala na začetku tega prispevka.
Dan nedolžnih otrok je bil vsaj v 10. stoletju še neznan. Cerkev je imela poseben razlog, da ga je uvedla.
Je povezan s Pehtro (bom napisala tudi o Pehtri, 5. januarja), ki je skrivnostno bajeslovno bitje. Po poganski veri je v času dvanajsteronočja pod nebom vodila nepregledno množico otroških duš. To izročilo je bilo zelo živo in globoko zakoreninjeno. Pa mu je Cerkev skušala dati vsaj na videz krščanski smisel. V sprevodu duš so bile duše nekrščenih otrok in otrok, ki so doživeli "krst krvi" (pobijanje Herodovih vojakov).
No, in potem so še tepežkanje naravnali na ta datum. Na dan nedolžnih otrok. Tukaj pa, pravi Kuret, ni bilo najbolj posrečena poteza Cerkve, saj je prvotni namen tepežkanja skušala zamenjati s pedagoškim in krščansko-etičnim smislom.
Tako so že v 12. stoletju v samostanskih šolah na ta dan s šibami tepli učenci svoje učitelje, če jih le-ti niso ubogali.
Prvotni poganski pomen se ni izgubil. Izgubil se je pa šolski okvir in tepežkanje se je preneslo iz šol ven. Tako so se pridružili starejšim fantom, ki so ohranjali  svojo mnogo starejšo šego.
Tako tudi danes tepežkanje pomeni voščilo zdravja in dolgega življenja.

Različna imena tepežkanja: rodivanje (Prekmurje), otročje (zahodna Štajerska in vzhodna Koroška), pame(t)iva (vzh. Štajerska, del Gorenjske in Notranjske), Herodeževo (Mursko polje), tepežni dan, tepežka, tepežnica (del Štajerske, Kranjska), otopov(i)ca (Blejsko in Bohinjsko), otepnica (Pohorje), šaplja, šapeljca, šapanje (Koroška - Rož, Zila), šapanje (Kanalska dolina). Goriška in Beneška Slovenija tega običaja ne poznata.

O tepežkanju sem poizvedela v 2. delu Prazničnega leta Slovencev (napisal Niko Kuret, Družina, Ljubljana 1989).
V svojem življenju se nisem nikoli srečala s tem običajem, čeprav naj bi po Niku Kuretu tudi v mojem okolju iz otroštva obstajala ta navada.

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Komentarji
17
Ana Kos
0
Dec 28, 2015
Anka, nisem vedela, da si tako huda "baba" :D :D :D
#17
Anka Klemenčič
0
Dec 28, 2015
Ana, danes sem jih tudi nekaj natepeškala v službi ;)
#16
Ana Kos
0
Dec 28, 2015
Anka! :)
#15
Anka Klemenčič
0
Dec 29, 2014
Tudi pri nas se niso tepli starši, pač pa starši nas otroke Ana......še zdaj se pa v službi pošalimo in druga drugo po riti potrepljamo ....
#14
Ana Kos
0
Dec 29, 2014
Anka,
pri nas nismo tepli staršev na nedolžne otroke in tudi mene moji otroci na srečo ne :) :D
Tako v živo sploh ne poznam običaja, le iz zapisov. Zdi se mi pa, da je bil kratek zapis o tepežkanju v Prvem berilu, mojem Prvem berilu!

Se spomniš tistega lepega berila z rdečimi platnicami?

Koliko generacij je imeli isto knjigo!
#13
Anka Klemenčič
0
Dec 28, 2014
Ana, hvala za tako lep zapis....pri nas so na ta dan potepežkali po riti, ob tem pa upili : reši se, reši se....
#12
Ana Kos
0
Dec 28, 2014
Zlobni, hehe, na srečo moji otroci nič kaj dosti ne vedo o tem, zaenkrat jih tako zelo izročilo še ne zanima, ko bodo odrasli, pa tole tepenje odpade, kajne? ;)
#11
Zlobni
0
Dec 28, 2014
Danes je čudovit dan za otroke. Starši bodo slišali švistenje šibe in pa pa vrišč in krik, navdušene mularije.
Tepežni dan, je pravi dan :-)
#10
Ana Kos
0
Dec 28, 2014
Danes so nedolžni otroci :)
#9
Ana Kos
0
Dec 29, 2013
Katarina, hvala za tole opozorilo!
Sama sem tudi mama otrok, ki jih ni več tukaj. Vem pa, da so na varnem, da so v božjem naročju.
Pred leti sem zgruntala, da zanje velja krst želja ali krst krvi in da ni nobene logike, da z njimi ne bi bilo zdaj dobro.
Bog je vendar neskončno usmiljen!
Res je, spomnimo se pa na starše teh otrok s sočutjem in ljubeznijo ...
#8
Katarina
0
Dec 28, 2013
28.12. je lansko leto postal več kot le dan nedolžnih otrok. Sedaj je tudi dan nerojenih otrok. Zakaj? Zato, ker je Svet katoliških laikov Slovenije zaprosil škofovsko konferenco, da določijo en dan v letu, ki bo posvečen tudi splavljenim otrokom (umetno, spontano itd.). In škofovska konferenca je potrdila datum 28. 12. Tako je bil današnji dan posvečen tudi vsem otročkom, ki so bili ubiti v postopkih splava. Spomnimo se danes na njih in njihove starše z ljubeznijo, usmiljenjem in sočutjem.
#7
Ana Kos
0
Dec 28, 2013
K-ris-tjan, ja, včasih ga Cerkev biksa.

Veselje nad rodovotnostjo je pa nekaj starodavnega in je žalostno, če ga kje ni.
#6
k-ritični kri-st.jan
0
Dec 28, 2013
Ta nesrečna za vsako ceno pedagoška Cerkev - še obrede za rodovitnost
zapreže v svoj voz - a zdrave ljudi itak le to veseli, kakorkoli jih "žlajfali"!
#5
Ana Kos
0
Dec 28, 2013
Kakšen izraz, Dušan! :-)
Sem nekaj časa razmišljala, kaj to pomeni. ;-)
Mislim, da razumem prav: Da je zvesa odgrnjena in vidiš malo več, kajne? (Firnk - fernk - zavesa)
Želim ti vse dobro!
#4
Dušan Mirić
1
Dec 28, 2013
Tole je pa en "firnk" manj v moji glavi-hvala Ana!
#3
Ana Kos
0
Dec 28, 2013
Dajana,
meni se zdi izročilo nekaj silno zanimivega.
Kako je kaj nastalo ne le v posamezniku, tebi, meni, nekom tretjem, pač pa tudi v narodu, ljudstvu ...
Rada potujem z ljudmi v neke daljne karje in/ali daljne čase ...
#2
Dajana Babič
0
Dec 28, 2013
Vau, a veš, da nisem tega nikoli razumela! Hvala! :)
#1
Ana Kos
Ana Kos
Objavil/a 2013-12-28 07:43:38 (Dec 28, 2013)
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