Sveti trije kralji oz. modri z vzhoda

Objavil/a Ana Kos, dne 2014-01-05 ob 21:52:22

Pravzaprav na praznik 6. januarja v prvi vrsti ne gre za tri kralje!
V Svetem pismu piše le, da so k Jezusu prišli modri z Vzhoda (Mt 2, 1-18). Ni omenjeno njihovo število. Bili so gotovo bogati in tudi zelo pametni možje - navsezadnje so jim zvezde povedale, da se je rodil Kralj sveta in so se mu prišli poklonit (pamet) in da so pot zmogli in da so prinesli vredna darila (bogastvo). Pot jim je kazala posebna zvezda - ponavadi nam tisto zvezdo ponazarja zvezda repatica.
Ko so prišli v Jeruzalem, se je zvezda skrila, zato so povprašali kralja Heroda po novem Kralju. Le-ta se je hudo ustrašil, zbal se je za svoj prestol.
Naročil je modrim, da ko najdejo Kralja, naj mu pridejo povedat, da se gre  Kralju poklonit. A kralje je potem opozoril angel, da naj se vrnejo po drugi poti in tako niso šli več h kralju Herodu. Le-ta se je tako bal za svoj položaj, da je dal pobiti vse fantke v Betlehemu, stare do dveh let ... Vendar Jezusa niso dobili, saj je bil tedaj že na begu v Egipt. Praznik nedolžnih otrok Cerkev praznuje 28. decembra.



Torej - modri z Vzhoda. Vzhod je širok pojem. Menda se po nošah "kraljev", naslikanih na zelo starih podobah, more sklepati na Arabijo, Kaldejo, Perzijo.
Tudi pojem "kralj" na vzhodu v srednjem veku je širok. Kralji na Vzhodu so bili tudi magi (učenjaki, modrijani), niso pa bili vsi magi kralji. S kraljevskimi kronami na glavah jih prvič srečamo v 8. stoletju - v mozaičnem tlaku stare vatikanske bazilike.
Število modrih? Sirsko izročilo in še druga vzhodna govorijo o dvanajstih kraljih, medtem ko se je na Zahodu uveljavilo število tri - po darovih, ki so omenjeni v Svetem pismu - zlato, kadilo, mira.
V troje jih prvič srečamo na podobi v katakombi sv. Priscile. 

Res je zanimivo, da govorimo o svetih treh kraljih, čeprav ne vemo, koliko jih je bilo, čeprav v resnici verjetno niso bili kralji in čeprav niso bili razglašeni za svete!
Danes so uveljavljena imena: Gašper (Kaspar), Miha (Melhior), Boltežar (Baltazar).
Zanimivo je še marsikaj, npr. da naj bi pastirji pri novorojenem Jezusu predstavljali Jude, Gašper semite, Miha jafetide, Boltežar hamite. Tako so začeli upodabljati Melhiorja kot Evropejca, Gašperja kot Azijca, Boltežarja kot Etiopca, črnca.

Tudi darovi so sčasoma pridobili simboliko: Melhior naj bi Jezusu dal zlato - ker je novorojeni Jezus kralj, Gašper kadilo, ker je novorojeni Jezus Bog, Boltežar pa miro, ker je Jezus tudi človek.
Večer pred svetimi tremi kralji je "sveti", je tretji izmed treh svetih večerov: prvi je večer pred božičem, 24. decembra, drugi je 31. decembra, na Silvestrovo, tretji pa 5. januarja (ki pa je v poganskem izročilu Pehtrin večer).
Na svete večere blagoslovimo hiše, stanovanja, pokadimo s kadilom ali vejicami iz cvetnonedeljske butare in pokropimo z blagoslovljeno vodo.
Na današnji dan v naši župniji, ponekod po Sloveniji pa že prej, hodijo okrog sveti trije kralji. Pridejo z veselim oznanilom o Jezusu, blagoslovijo dom in pobirajo prispevke za revne v misijonih. (Vsako leto je natančno določeno, v kakšen namen bodo šli prispevki in Misijonsko središče natančno poroča o vsem.)

Noč pred svetimi tremi kralji je morala biti svetla. Od tod tudi izraz zanjo: svetla noč. V vseh treh svetih nočeh mora goreti luč v hiši. V Brdih (skrajni zahod Slovenije) so kurili trikraljevske kresove. Ponekod po tri, za vsakega kralja eden.
Luči, posebno kresovi, so zanimiv ostanek predkrščanskih obredij, ki so hotela nuditi dušam pokojnih ob njihovi vrnitvi v nekdanje domovanje svetlobo in toploto.

Če pogledamo danes v cerkvene koledarje, vidimo, da piše: Gospodovo razglašenje (epifanija, tu gre vsaj za troje stvari: obisk modrih z Vzhoda, Jezusov krst v reki Jordan, svatba v Kani Galilejski, kjer naj bi se zgodil prvi čudež).
Praznik "svetih treh kraljev" je bil prvi in dolgo časa edini krščanski praznik v božičnem času. Šele kakšnih 300 let po Jezusovem rojstvu so njegov rojstni dan začeli praznovati 25. decembra. Vzhodna Cerkev sprva ni priznala božiča, ko pa je sprejela praznovanje Jezusovega rojstva, so ga uvedli kar 6. januarja. Ta dan je bil že sicer v bizantinskem območju praznik - vsakoletno novo rojstvo boga Dioniza, zavetnika rodovitnosti in vina.
Z današnjim dnem se končuje ožja božična doba (širša je do svečnice, 2. februarja), sveto dvanajterodnevje (dodekahemeron), s tem je rimska Cerkev dala poganskim "volčjim" nočem (o koliko branja me še čaka!) novo, blago krščansko vsebino.


Nekatere stvari o izročilu v zvezi z današnjim praznikom sem poznala, za kaj več sem se spet obrnila k Niku Kuretu, v drugem delu Prazničnega leta Slovencev je marsikaj zanimivega o tem!

Ko sem brala knjigo Nika Kureta, sem opazila tudi besedo poprtnjak. Oja, tudi pri nas doma smo poznali to besedo, no, pri nas je seveda izpadel n, pri nas smo poznali poprtjak. Pomenila je kruh, ki ga je mama spekla za božič in potem en hleb shranila vse do svetih treh kraljev, tedaj ga je razrezala in razdelila vsem. Tedaj je dobila od hleba tudi vsa živina, krave, prašiči, kokoši, mački, pes.
Uveljavljeni izrazi za poprtnak: poprtnjak, poprtnik, župnik, božičnik, stalnik, močni kruh, pomižnjek, postovjek, župnjak, prtnjak.
Božičnemu kruhu pripisujejo čarobne moči. Ponekod so kruh blagoslavljali duhovniki in bi tako bil kruh s "posebno močjo". Vendar je vera v te moči starejša od krščanstva.

Kralji in begunski deček - en "starejši" obisk kraljev pri nas.

profileimage
Všeč mi je
1
Komentarji
10
zaupljivež
1
Jan 07, 2019
Ex Oriente Lux, za Primorce
je že Ljubljana Vzhod - od tam
nam prihajajo modri vladni u-krepi!
#10
abram1b2 Cej
0
Jan 06, 2019
Zim Zelen :)* Že v imenih treh ktraljev je napaka in v njihovih darovih. Melki OR je nosilec Svetega duha EM sile,ki nosi in daje luč.Lahko bi zapisali tudi EL.Or božja luč EL-Eliona Boga vseedinega. Lp :)*
#9
Zim Zelen
0
Jan 06, 2019
Sem malo nazaj pogledal, da dopolnim še druge razlage današnjega praznovanja :-)
(praznovanja v teh dneh:)
Lep dan vsem
#8
Ana Kos
1
Jan 06, 2015
Anka,
od naših otrok sta letos sodelovala dva, eden je bil pastir, drugi kamela. Nismo pa imeli nobenega kralja, sicer so bili ponavadi naši črni kralji - Boltežar/ji :)

Ta tematika me zanima, saj letos sem samo obudila zapis od prej. :)
Kakšne stvari so za več kot za enkrat prebrat, kajne ... no, ne pokvarijo se, pa lahko čez eno leto spet pokažem :)
#7
Anka Klemenčič
0
Jan 06, 2015
Ana, pa ti si kot enciklopedija. Hvala za tako lep zapis. Moj Blaž je s koledniki koledval po vasi do pete ure zjutraj :)
#6
Ana Kos
0
Jan 06, 2015
In danes praznujejo modri z vzhoda ... morda kar vsi modri, ki se poklonijo Jezusu? ;)
#5
Ana Kos
0
Jan 06, 2014
Mi.Zli, morda je pa res prav tako, kot praviš ti! :-)
Svetloba, toplota. Vsekakor se dan začne na vzhodu! :-)
Dnevna luč pride z vzhoda.
#4
Ana Kos
0
Jan 06, 2014
Katarina,
prišli naj bi skupaj, torej so se nekje vendar morali združiti - če bi bili z vseh strani, bi se še težje zmenili, da se nekje dobijo - v času, ko še ni bilo mobitelov in navigacije. ;-)
#3
mr.zli
0
Jan 06, 2014
Sonce prihaja od tam, Katarina, svetloba in toplota . . .
#2
Katarina Žarki
0
Jan 06, 2014
pa le kako jim je uspelo dobit samo modre z vzhoda? kaj pa zahod, sever in jug? :)))
#1
Ana Kos
Ana Kos
Objavil/a 2014-01-05 21:52:22 (Jan 05, 2014)
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