Primož Jelševar v odprtem pismu Marjanu Šarcu: Spremenite delovnopravno zakonodajo!

Objavil/a V Fokusu, dne 2019-05-09 ob 16:16:31

Spoštovani predsednik vlade RS Marjan Šarec!

Družbi, ki gleda v prihodnost mora biti v interesu, da izmed sebe išče talente ne glede na spolno, rasno in starostno usmerjenost. Vzpodbudno je, da je Slovenija po raziskavah WEF global gender gap index 2018 najbolje uvrščena država v regiji in da smo pri doseganju razkoraka med spoloma celo eni najboljših na svetu. Žal pa na Inštitutu dr. Antona Korošca ugotavljamo, da obstaja velika verjetnost, da smo se ob tem dosežku ujeli v znani paradoks enakovrednosti med spoloma (gender-equality paradox), kar se nam je začelo vračati podobno kot nekaterim drugim evropskim državam. Ta paradoks dokazuje, da države, ki pretirano promovirajo in od organizacij in državljanov zahtevajo doseganje enakovrednosti, dosegajo nasprotni učinek, katerega rezultat je slabše razmerje enakovrednost, zlasti pri zaposlovanju v tehničnih in naravoslovnih poklicih.

Eden od pokazateljev, da smo pri tem zašli predaleč, je tudi nedavni primer globe, ki jo je za praznik dela dobil lastnik prekmurskega lokala zaradi zaposlitvenega oglasa. Kazen ga je doletela, ker z oglasom, v katerem je navedel, da išče osebo ženskega spola za mesto vodja lokala, naj ne bi zagotovil enake obravnave med spoloma. V oči bode nenavadno visoka zagrožena kazen, ki je med 3.000 in 20.000 EUR, kar v primeru manjšega podjetja lahko celo ogrozi njegov obstoj, kot tudi dejstvo, da gre za ukrep, ki je na skregan z zdravo pametjo. Zaradi zakonske utemeljitve so mediji o primeru pisali celo kot o seksizmu pri zaposlovanju. Ta primer je med zaposlovalci odprl razmislek o tem ali obstoječa zakonodaja res pripomore k večji enakovrednostimed spoloma ali v praksi ta razkorak le dodatno poglablja. Mnoge svetovne študije namreč dokazujejo, da so starostno in spolno mešane ekipe na delovnih mestih boljše kot ekipe, v katerih so le predstavniki enega spola oz. podobne starosti. Mešane ekipe dosegajo večji uspeh, v njih je večje medsebojno zaupanje, delujejo bolj povezano, poleg tega je v takšnih skupinah tudi manj medsebojnih konfliktov. Zaposleni, ki delujejo v takšnih ekipah, so navadno bolj srečni in tudi bolj produktivni od tistih, ki delajo v homogenih ekipah. Gre za enega najpomembnejših postulatov pri izvajanju kadrovske strategije podjetja, zato se uspešni kadrovniki tega poslužujejo že od nekdaj, seveda na tistih delovnih mestih, ki so primerna za oba spola.

Zakon o delovnih razmerjih (ZDR-1) v svojem 26. členu govori, da delodajalec delovnega mesta ne sme objaviti samo za en spol, tako da zakon eksplicitno omejuje možnost, da delodajalci, ki vlagamo v zadovoljstvo svojih zaposlenih, ustvarjamo ekipe sestavljene iz predstavnikov obeh spolov. Težave se pojavijo na delovnih mestih npr. v tehničnih poklicih, kamor se navadno prijavljajo samo moški, saj je bilo v preteklosti takšno delo pogojeno s fizično močjo delavca. Danes je delo na nekaterih sodobnih strojih, kjer fizična moč ni tako pomembna, primerno tako za moške kot tudi ženske. Realnost je, da prav zaradi takšnih nepremišljenih zakonov slovenski zaposlovalci tega ne moremo sporočiti iskalcem zaposlitve, saj smo s tem v prekršku. Zaradi tega se ne moremo prilagajati tehničnemu napredku in novim dognanjem na področju trga dela, ki so posledica Industrije 4.0. Takšni zakoni so zato nazadnjaški in z zanemarjanjem dognanj stroke zavirajo razvoj ter silijo zaposlovalce, da iskalce zaposlitve zavajamo z objavo posplošenih oglasov za delo. Določbe ZDR-1 so tako nepraktične in skregane z zdravo logiko, saj od delodajalcev zahtevajo, da odpiramo le delovna mesta, ki so primerna za oba spola s tem pa se utrjuje zmota, da je vsako delo primerno za oba spola. Ob enem pa gre za enega bolj diskriminatornih zakonov, saj omejuje možnosti, da se tam, kjer je to mogoče, zaposlujejo tako moški kot ženske.

Spoštovani predsednik vlade, če želimo biti družba, usmerjena v prihodnost, če želimo biti gospodarsko uspešni in konkurenčni s primerljivimi državami, je pomembno, da takšne pasti v slovenski zakonodaji prepoznamo in jih v kar najhitrejšem času odpravimo. Predlagam vam, da se iz Zakona o delovnih razmerjih izvzamejo določbe, ki delodajalcem omejujejo možnost oblikovanja optimalnih kolektivov, ki so pomembni za uspešnost naših podjetij in organizacij.

S spoštovanjem,

Primož Jelševar

podjetnik in direktor Inštituta dr. Antona Korošca

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May 14, 2019
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