Nove znamke- serija slovenskih kozolcev

Objavil/a V Fokusu, dne 2019-06-30 ob 08:32:31

Pošta Slovenije je izdala serijo petih znamk z naslovom Slovenski kozolci.

Še zadnji pričevalci tesarskega znanja, oblik in funkcij


Kadar govorimo o slovenskih posebnostih in simbolih, pogosto navajamo tudi kozolce, značilne lesene naprave in stavbe za sušenje ter shranjevanje
sena in snopov žit, tudi koruze in nekaterih drugih pridelkov. V dolgoletnem razvoju se je na delu slovenskega ozemlja razvilo več tipoloških inačic,
od enostavnega, stegnjenega kozolca brez strehe ali s streho do kozolca s pristreškom ali plaščem, dvojnega kozolca, kozolca na kozla in dvojnega
vezanega kozolca ali toplarja.

Osnovnih tipov je okoli deset, izpeljav pa je nešteto. Številna so tudi narečna
poimenovanja tako kozolcev kot njihovih sestavnih delov. Prav v slednjih je ohranjeno mojstrstvo tesarskega znanja in tehnoloških rešitev, ki so
ustvarile prave mojstrovine. Večji dvojni kozolci ali toplarji, ki so domnevno mlajšega nastanka od druge polovice 17. stoletja, so že prave stavbe, ki po svoji kvadraturi pogosto presegajo površino kmečkih stanovanjskih hiš. Najstarejše slikovno pričevanje o enojnem kozolcu je v topografiji Matevža Meriana iz leta 1649. Ob koncu 17. stoletja je Janez Vajkard Valvasor kozolec opisal in v delu Slava vojvodine Kranjske iz leta 1689 objavil bakrorez s prikazom zlaganja snopja v kozolec. O starosti kozolcev je bilo veliko ugibanj. Po najnovejših raziskavah, ki so podkrepljene z ustreznimi pisnimi in slikovnimi viri, naj bi kozolci nastali šele v 16. stoletju, in sicer v Ziljski dolini ter na delu Gorenjskega.

Najstarejše do sedaj znano pisno pričevanje je prav iz Ziljske doline, in sicer iz leta 1558. Za uveljavitev kozolca in njegovo razširitev v osrednjo Slovenijo in
na Dolenjsko je bilo značilno 17. stoletje, množično pa so jih začeli postavljati v številnih tipoloških različicah šele v 19.stoletju. Takrat dokončno postanejo
značilnost slovenske pokrajine. Ozemlje s kozolci je bilo na celotnem območju Gorenjskega, v osrednji Sloveniji, Zasavju in Posavju, prek Loškega ozemlja na
Tolminskem, na celotnem Dolenjskem in Štajerskem do Slovenske Bistrice.


Pošta Slovenije izdaja pet znamk z izbranimi kozolci iz Zasavja (kozolec s plaščem), Poljanske doline (dvojni kozolec ali toplar in enojni s kamnitimi, zidanimi stebri), Osrednje Slovenije (enojni kozolec z več razdelki med
stebri ali okni), Dolenjske (mogočen dvojni kozolec ali toplar) in Studorja v Bohinju (značilna studorska dvojna kozolca ali stoga). Avtor izvrstnih likovnih
upodobitev je akademski slikar Janez Kovačič.


							 


To je le izbor iz velike palete ustvarjalnosti, ki je imela svoje središče na delu slovenskega ozemlja, čeprav kozolcem podobnim napravam lahko sledimo tudi
ponekod po Evropi. Danes kozolci propadajo, saj stara kmečka modrost pravi, da je kozolec najlepši takrat, kadar je poln! Zlasti dvojne kozolce, ki še kljubujejo času, pogosto uporabljajo kot garaže za poljedelske
stroje in osebne avtomobile, tudi za odlaganje neuporabnih predmetov, ki bi bolj sodili na uradna smetišča.


							 

Velike tehnološke spremembe v kmetijstvu in sodobni načini spravila sena s siliranjem ali baliranjem so botrovali propadu kozolcev. Njihovo ´umiranje´
spreminja tudi kulturo krajine, le nekateri izjemni, strokovno izbrani primeri se ohranjajo kot zavarovana, nepremična kulturna dediščina.


Prof. dr. Janez Bogataj

Poleg znamke je bil izdan tudi ovitek ter žig prvega dne.

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