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Objavil/a jana radovanovic, dne 2016-01-03 ob 15:14:16

sedlacek

Spodaj je drugi del zapisa o Sedláčkovi knjigi. Prvi del se nahaja tukaj

Kot smo videli v prvem delu, je gospodarska rast dvorezen meč. Z njo pridejo inovacije in napredek, vendar obenem tudi narašča naša potreba po stvareh, ki niso nujne (za preživetje).

Naravno bi bilo pričakovati, da bolj, ko se stvari selijo iz kategorije potrebujem v kategorijo imam, tem bolj bi se mogla kategorija potrebujem manjšati. Temu navkljub ugotavljamo, da potrošnja ne vodi v potešitev naših potreb. Začuda velja prav obratno: čim več imamo, več dodatnih stvari potrebujemo. Od kje pa vendarle izvira ta nenasitna potreba po stvareh (novem mobilcu vsaki dve leti, boljši tablici in računalniku, hitrejšemu avtomobilu, novi garderobi, itd.)?

Sedláček piše, da naše potrebe naraščajo hitreje, kot jih lahko zadovoljujemo. Drugače povedano: včasih smo mislili, da več ko bomo imeli, manj bomo potrebovali in želeli. V resnici pa ne bomo nikdar potešeni, saj rast ponudbe ne bo nikoli ujela novega povpraševanja (tu Sedláček citira našega Žižka, da smisel poželenja ni uresničiti svoj cilj in doseči polno zadovoljenost, ampak se “kot poželenje razmnoževati”). Pri modernem človeku ne gre več samo za izpolnitev želja, ampak za “več in boljše želje”:

Lahko gremo celo tako daleč, da rečemo, da je nezadovoljstvo gonilo napredka in tržnega kapitalizma. (…) V naši nenehni želji, da bi imeli več in več, smo žrtvovali prijetnost dela. Želimo preveč in preveč delamo. Smo zdaleč najbogatejša civilizacija, kar jih je bilo, vendar smo tudi enako daleč stran od besede “dovolj” oziroma od zadovoljstva, če ne dlje, kot kadarkoli v značilno “primitivni” preteklosti.

Nezadovoljstvo je že v samem bistvu naše civilizacije (miti in zgodbe pa potrjujejo, da so se tega zavedali že v starih ‘neciviliziranih’ časih). Medtem ko nam je močna želja po napredku tudi v resnici omogočila napredek, pa je po drugi strani zadovoljitev vseh želja za “sodobne vernike v napredek” nezaželena – še več, je “gonilo napredka in tržnega kapitalizma”, kot pravi Sedláček zgoraj. (Zakaj je temu tako, spregovori tudi Renata Salecl v knjigi Izbira). Proces poteka namreč v obe smeri: vsa podjetja skušajo predvideti, kaj potrošniki želijo in potrebujejo, saj bodo tako ustvarila večji dobiček (beri: proizvesti tisto, za kar obstaja povpraševanje), hkrati pa nam oglasi v medijih kažejo, česa si pravzaprav moramo želeti. Ljudje pa se sizifovsko ženemo za cilji, ki se odmikajo hitreje, kot se jim družba sploh približuje. Mimogrede, ste opazili, da tudi točko sreče/blaženosti vedno vidimo samo v retrospektivi (namreč: srečo vedno opazimo šele, ko se nam je korist zmanjšala)?

Po eni strani sta kronično nezadovoljstvo in nemirnost koristna, saj nas silita k novim odkritjem in razvoju. Torej sploh ne gre za to, da bi se morali odpovedati vsej lastnini, ampak bolj za idejo, da sreča ponavadi pride kot stranski proizvod, če delamo nekaj dobrega. Resnično: včasih si je nevarno želeti stvari, ki si jih lahko želimo, kot nekje zapiše Sedláček.

Naj pa se za zaključek navežemo nazaj na rast. Če je Newton nekoč uporabil matematiko kot orodje, ki bi mu poenostavilo delo, danes ekonomisti počnejo ravno nasprotno: ustvarjajo model sveta in človeka tako, da bi ustrezal matematičnemu modelu. Kar je seveda absurdno že samo po sebi in velika potrata časa.

Sloveniji in svetu primanjkuje poglobljenega razumevanja kot tudi vizije za prihodnost. Gospodarska rast za vsako ceno je dandanes nekakšen sveti gral, nihče pa zares ne zna prepričljivo argumentirati, kaj sploh želimo preko nje doseči:

Pravo vprašanje zatorej ni, ali tržno gospodarstvo deluje ali ne. Pravo vprašanje (in resnično se to sprašujemo) je, ali deluje tako, kot želimo, da deluje. Vprašanje, ali nekaj deluje, je samo po sebi nesmiselno, če ni povezano s pomenom in namenom danega pojava. Samo glede na to lahko presodimo, ali nekaj (ne) deluje.

Silno preprosta ideja, ki bi jo lahko razložili že majhnemu otroku: če ne veš, zakaj nekaj počneš, je tvoje delovanje brez pravega cilja. Tako tudi gospodarska rast zaradi rasti same nima smisla: če se gospodarstvo stalno peha za višjo rastjo in tega niti ne zna utemeljiti, je to početje nesmiselno. Kot številni drugi ekonomisti pa tudi Sedláček na tem mestu predlaga, naj države spremenijo splošni cilj gospodarske politike, ki se naj glasi nekako takole: v času bogastva shrani presežke, da lahko tako preživiš primanjkljaje. Poenostavljeno rečeno: ko avto drvi po klancu navzdol, pritisni na zavoro, ne pa pospešuj (kakor smo počeli zadnja leta). Vse to se navezuje nazaj na reševanje evroobmočja v času finančne krize in predvidenimi ukrepi za prihodnost. 

Če ne vemo, kam želimo priti, se ne smemo čuditi, kam nas tavanje navsezadnje (ne) pripelje:

Občutek brezciljnosti se veže na občutek brezpomenskosti in brezdomnosti. Tek proti cilju se razlikuje od teka kot takega. Če tečemo zaradi teka kot takega (rekreacija), potem tečemo v krogu, kar je v redu, toda potem ne smemo biti presenečeni, da nismo ‘nikamor prišli’.

Če potegnemo črto, lahko rečemo, da je Sedláčkova knjiga Ekonomija dobrega in zla prvovrstna in se zlahka kosa s Pikettyjevo knjigo Kapital v 21. stoletju. Vsekakor je vredna branja in razmisleka, radovedneži vseh vrst pa nad njo ne bodo razočarani. Preostali pa že nestrpno pričakujemo prevod tudi Sedláčkove najnovejše knjige Lilit in demoni kapitalizma, kjer z Oliverjem Tanzerjem kapitalizem posedeta na freudovski kavč in ga psihoanalizirata. (Spoiler alert: končna diagnoza označi kapitalizem za globoko motenega.)

bajstender – premišljeno kurirana vsebina

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