Orhan Pamuk o tem, zakaj beremo

Objavil/a jana radovanovic, dne 2016-01-14 ob 14:32:40

pamuk

Med zadnjim knjižnim sejmom je do mene priromala knjiga Naivni in sentimentalni romanopisec, v kateri Orhan Pamuk razmišlja o odnosu pisatelj-bralec, o iskanju osrednje teme (oziroma središča) romana, o vrstah pisateljev in zakaj pravzaprav beremo.

Pamuk nekje zapiše, da beremo tudi iz občutka distinkcije, saj se ob prebiranju romanov pogosto počutimo, kot da pisatelj nagovarja samo nas:

Trud, ki ga vložimo v branje in vizualiziranje romana, je povezan z našo željo po tem, da bi bili nekaj posebnega in se razločevali od drugih ljudi.

Poda še zgodbico, v kateri bo marsikdo prepoznal sebe ali svoje bližnje:

… na istanbulski tehnični univerzi [se je] veliko število novih študentov postavilo v vrsto za vpis na začetku študentskega leta. Zgodba pripoveduje, da je neko dekle, ki je čakalo proti koncu vrste – imenujmo jo Ayşe – iz torbice ne brez določene mere ponosnega sija, vzelo knjigo Iskanje izgubljenega časa in jo začelo prebirati. Občasno je privzdignila glavo od knjige in se zazrla v študente, s katerimi naj bi preživljala naslednja štiri leta. Še posebej je opazila neko dekle, ki je stalo nekoliko pred njo – imenujmo jo Zeynep – v čevljih z visokimi petami, preveč naličeno in oblečeno v neokusno, drago obleko. Z zaničljivim nasmeškom ob Zeynepinem izumetničenem videzu se je Ayşe še tesneje oprijela svojega izvoda Prousta. Nekoliko pozneje pa je Ayşe, ko je privzdignila glavo od knjige, osupnila, saj je zagledala, kako je Zeynep iz torbice izvlekla in začela brati natanko enako knjigo. Ker ni mogla verjeti, da bi lahko sama brala enako knjigo kot dekle, kakršno je bilo Zeynep, jo je minilo vse zanimanje, ki ga je čutila do Prousta.

 

Zase lahko trdim, da kadarkoli opazim koga ob branju knjige, ki bi zanimale tudi mene, do te osebe čutim neko simpatijo in implicitno tovarištvo. Kot nekdo, ki se počasi približuje tridesetemu letu starosti, se lahko zelo dobro poistovetim z naslednjimi Pamukovimi besedami:

Nikoli ne bom pozabil romanov, ki sem jih prebiral v svojih dvajsetih, ko sem vročično iskal njihova središča, kakor da bi šlo za življenje ali smrt. Ne le zato, ker sem iskal smisel življenja, temveč tudi zato, ker sem izumljal in brusil svoj pogled na svet, svojo etično občutljivost, ob tem pa uporabljal uvide, ki sem jih nabrala iz romanov mojstrov, kakršni so Tolstoj, Stendhal, Proust, Mann, Dostojevski in Woolfova.

Po drugi strani pa sem žanrskim romanom (torej znanstveni fantastiki, kriminalkam, zgodovinsko fantazijskim in ljubezenskim romanom) vedno pripisovala manjšo umetniško vrednost (recimo temu literarni snobizem). Zdi se mi potrata časa, če človek iz prebranega ne izlušči nobenega spoznanja ali novega védenja in ne verjamem, da me bo kdo kdaj prepričal drugače. Nasprotno pa jih moja mati, nepotešljiv knjižni molj, naravnost obožuje. Pravi, da je branje ljubezenskih romanov ali kriminalk zabavno prav zato, ker “ni potrebno zraven veliko misliti”. Prav nanjo sem se spomnila, ko sem prebrala Pamukovo misel, da žanrske romane berem zato, da bi “občutili mir in varnost bivanja doma, kjer nam je vse znano in je na svojem stalnem mestu”. Očitno sčasoma vse stvari res dobijo svoj pravi obraz. 

Meni veliko bolj domača pa je razlaga, zakaj beremo literarne klasike:

Razlog, zakaj se zatekamo k literarnim romanom, velikim romanom, kjer iščemo vodstvo in modrost, ki bi življenju utegnila vdahniti pomen, pa je, da se na svetu ne zmoremo počutiti kot doma. (…) Moderni človek bere in potrebuje romane, da bi se na svetu počutil doma, ker je bil njegov odnos z vesoljem, v katerem biva, poškodovan.

Moderni posvetni posameznik si, kljub temu da globoko v sebi prepoznava jalovost svojih prizadevanj, ne more kaj, da ne bi premišljeval o smislu življenja, medtem ko poskuša določiti središče romana, ki ga prebira, kajti v iskanju tega središča išče središče lastnega življenja in središče sveta. Če prebiramo literarni roman, delo, katerega središče ni očitno, je ena naših glavnih motivacij potreba po premišljevanju o tem središču in določanju, kako blizu je našemu pogledu na obstoj.

Če je nevednost blaženost, bom z največjim veseljem živela v spodaj opisani iluziji:

Veliki literarni romani, kot so Ana Karenina, V iskanju izgubljenega časa, Čarobna gora in Valovi, so za nas nepogrešljivi, ker ustvarjajo upanje in živo iluzijo, da ima svet središče in smisel, in ker nas navdajajo z radostjo, ko med našim obračanjem njihovih strani ohranjajo ta vtis. (…) Za modernega posvetnega posameznika je ena pot do najdbe globljega, temeljnega smisla v svetu prebiranja velikih literarnih romanov. Ko jih prebiramo, razumemo, da ima ne le svet, temveč tudi naš um več kot samo eno središče.

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Objavil/a 2016-01-14 14:32:40 (Jan 14, 2016)
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Med zadnjim knjižnim sejmom je do mene priromala knjiga Naivni in sentimentalni romanopisec, v kateri Orhan Pamuk razmišlja o odnosu pisatelj-bralec, o iskanju osrednje teme (oziroma središča) roma...

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