Spolnost pri čebelah

Objavil/a Meda Polna Skleda, dne 2016-01-01 ob 11:25:13

Deviške neveste, trotavost in podobne zanimivosti iz spolnega življenja čebel.


Spolnost se pri čebelah dogaja le pri spolno zrelih osebkih v čebelji družini: pri matici in trotu. Čebelam delavkam se v izjemnih primerih (ko ni več matice v čebeljem gnezdu) tudi razvijejo spolni organi, kljub temu, da se ne parijo nikoli, so sposobne zaleganja jajčec, a iz teh se izlegajo le troti.


Mlade matice so najdragocenejše, kar lahko ustvari čebelja družina. Skupina čebel delavk, ki spremlja matico na svatbenem poletu, ji pomaga z vodenjem, hkrati pa zmanjša verjetnost, da bi bila matica uplenjena, gre za učinek ribje jate. Čebele preprosto zapolnijo zračni prostor, kjer poteka parjenje.


V vsem svojem življenju matica spočne na milijone hčera, potomk pa se pari izredno majhno število, v najboljšem primeru jih je približno nekaj deset. Te so izključno samo mlade matice, ki poletijo na svojo svatbo večinoma le enkrat v življenju v spremstvu čebel delavk.


Troti so še v slabšem položaju, poleti se jih v čebelji družini izleže nekaj tisoč,  večino obdobja spolne zrelosti čepijo zunaj panja na podrasti ali vejah dreves in čakajo mlado matico. Od teh vse letne kvote trotov se jih pari z matico le nekaj deset, uspešno oploditev pa plačajo s takojšnjo smrtjo, saj jih sam spolni akt skoraj dobesedno prekolje na dvoje. V spolnost in smrt jih žene obljuba očetovstva tisočim čebelam.


Svatbeni let  deviške mlade matice traja ponavadi 10 do 20 minut, lahko tudi celo uro. Ko je njena spermateka do roba polna semenčic, je svatbe konec za vekomaj, pri tej mladi matici seveda. Matica od vseh vbrizganih doz vseh uspešnih trotov obdrži v sebi le desetino sperme, do 6 milijonov semenčic. Troti iztisnejo le polovico svojega orodja v matico in potem obvisijo na njej. Matica je tista, ki dokonča spolni akt s pomočjo močnega krčenja mišic zadka in prenese semenčice v svojo spermateko.


Spermateka matice deluje kot naravna semenska banka, iz katere ta matica črpa semenčice za oploditev njenih jajčec med zaleganjem do 200.000 jajčec v enem letu. Semenčice so shranjene v posebni mošnjici in na razpolago glede na potrebe zaleganja. Na zgornji steni semenske mošnjice se nahaja cevasto zvita žleza, verjetno ima ta žleza pomembno vlogo pri polnjenju semenske mošnjice, hkrati pa izloča hranilne snovi, ki omogočajo življenje shranjenim spermijem, s tem pa seveda uspešno oploditev jajčnih celic, ko semenčice potujejo po tanki cevki iz semenske mošnjice proti nožnici.


Spolni organi matice po oploditvi zavzemajo pretežen del njenega zadka, je pa ta tudi močno povečan. Največja sta jajčnika, vsak je sestavljen iz 150 do 180 jajčnih cevk, v teh pa so nanizana jajčeca. V jajčnikih nastajajo jajčeca iz praspolnih celic. Vsak dan na višku zaleganja dozori v vsaki jajčni cevčici do 8 jajčec, potujejo po jajcevodu in preidejo v vrečasto nožnico. Semenska mošnjica je s kanalčkom povezana z nožnico. Ko jajčece zapusti jajcevod, se mišice skrčijo in semenska mošnjica se odpre, da spermij oplodi jajčece. Naenkrat se izloči samo nekaj spermijev, kar je pomembno, ker ko ji spermijev zmanjka, jo čebele preležejo in ubijejo.


V nožnici je zatič, ki po oploditvi zadržuje iztekanje sperme iz jajčnikov, v katere se sperma izlije začasno. Za zaklopnico, ki se dviga iz dna nožnice, se jajčece ustavi in semenčica ga tam oplodi. Prav od oploditve je odvisno, ali se bo razvila čebela delavka oz. matica ali trot - iz neoplojenih jajčec se lahko izleže le trot, iz oplojenih pa čebele delavke ali mlada matica. Pojav, da je neoplojeno jajčece zmožno razvoja, imenujemo deviška rodnost ali partenogeneza.


Da obstaja nastanek novega življenja lahko tudi brez oploditve, je med čebelarji malo znano. Pojav pa vendar obstaja in ima celo svoje ime. Med starejšimi čebelarji celo živi prepričanje, da so potomci čebel trotovk in morda tudi trotave matice (ki ji je zmanjkalo spermijev za oplajanje njenih jajčec) samo spački, ki kmalu pomrejo. To slednje deloma drži, 'trotavi' troti so slabše telesno in spolno razviti, kar pa je bolj posledica slabe hrane, ker v čebelji družini ob njihovem pojavu zmanjkuje čebel krmilk.


Raziskovalce čebeljega vedenja močno vznemirja ugotovitev, da so čebele tiste, ki izberejo trenutek, ko 'pošljejo' mlado matico na praho, izbirajo trote, ki se lahko parijo z njihovo matico, določajo količino trotovske zalege in celo izbirajo oz. izločijo neustrezno matico s preleganjem, ko se tako odločijo.


Čebele odločajo o spolnosti v svoji družini tako, da spremenijo arhitekturo satja. Satne celice so različnih velikosti in oblik za posamezne člane v čebelji družini - matico, trote ali čebele delavke. Naslednje orodje je hrana, ki so jo deležne ličinke. Tesne družinske povezave v posameznem čebeljem gnezdu pa so posledica in ne vzrok za tvorbo družine.


S trotavostjo pa se že in še bolj se bomo soočali in spoprijemali tudi v človeški vrsti.

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Meda Polna Skleda
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