Odmiranje čebeljih družin na obroke

Objavil/a Meda Polna Skleda, dne 2017-02-03 ob 09:13:00

... in kaj vsak izmed nas lahko naredi, da bi bilo čebelam in ljudem lažje? V tem primeru gre za aktivno razmišljanje, aktivno artikuliranje konkretnih predlogov in odprtje poligona za združevanje posameznikov v 'gruče' za lažje doseganje skupnih ciljev.

Čebele odmirajo na obroke, ne le v zimskem obdobju, ampak tudi preko leta. Lanskim jesenskim pogibelim čebeljih družin so še največ pripomogle varoje, virusi in lakota, saj se mnogi čebelarji niso upali zadosti in ob pravem času nakrmiti svoje čebele s sladkorjem - da bi slučajno cukr ne zašel v med. Zakonodaja je vzpostavila teren za inšpekcijski nadzor, v medu ne sme biti nič sladkorja.

Ljudje imamo radi obroke, ker nam obročnost pomeni stvar dobiti danes, plačati pa daleč v prihodnosti. Tajkuni znajo izpeljati tudi tako, da nikoli ne odplačajo svojih zadolžnic, ali pa zanje odplača masa davkoplačevalcev. Čebele pa ne. Čebele se danes pripravljajo na razmere v prihodnosti, ki jim bodo same kos.

Pri ljudeh gre največkrat za nezmožnost učinkovite adaptacije na spremembe, ki iznenada in potuhnjeno postanejo iz akutnih dogodkov kronične, ko je zlahka mogoče spregledati potek dogodkov. Uvid v prihodnost je kvaliteta, ki jo zmorejo le redki čebelarji, večina ljudi pa ne. Saj je logično, večino vedeževalcev in napovedovalcev prihodnosti okolje potolče in jih prizemlji. Strašljivejšo inačico današnjih 'svetovalcev' - čarovnice so že pred stoletji skurili na grmadah.

Z vidika narave

Javna skrivnost je, da zima pomeni izločanje slabih ali bolnih čebeljih družin. Do odmiranja pride največkrat postopoma, tako rekoč na obroke od jeseni do pomladi. Razlogi so tako na strani akutnih dogajanj v čebeljih panjih, znotraj čebeljih družin, kot kronično poslabšanih okoljskih pogojev, ki vplivajo na dostopnost hrane za čebele in slednjič dejavnikov, ki vplivajo na zdravje čebel. Pogubna pot se začne pri hrani in nadaljuje z boleznimi do odmrtja čebelje družine.

Čebele so res preživele milijone let, nimajo pa nobene garancije, da bodo živele večno. Življenje posamezne čebelice je kratko in prekratno, da bi se učinkovito prilagodila na spremembe v okolju in zahteve, pred katere jo postavlja človek. Kar ne zmore čebelica, zmore včasih čebelja družina, vedno pa ne. Trend je povečanje slabih čebelarskih sezon na račun dobrih, kar bo nujno vodilo čebelarje v konflikte med njimi samimi. Za čebele slaba čebelarska sezona pomeni premalo naravne in preveč sladkorne hrane, kar bistveno vpliva na zmožnost preživetja socialnega organizma.

Prihodnost ni rožnata ne za čebele ne za čebelarje, paše so vedno slabše. O osnovnem problemu kako izboljšati življenjske pogoje čebel ne razmišljajo ne oblasti ne civili, čebelarji, zato ni pričakovati učinkovitih sprememb na področju varovanja čebel. Čebelarji smo tisti, ki smo podlegli varljivemu kratkoročnemu učinku dražilnega krmljenja in ropanja (subvencije, raziskave, obljube), čebele pa prepoznajo slabe učinke prihodnjih dogodkov in se nanje odzovejo že dolgo prej, preden se v resnici zgodijo. Problem je, ker čebelarji ne znamo 'prebrati' in razumeti simptomov, recimo vzroka in posledice lanskega izredno rojivega leta.

Naravno je, da v prvem letu življenja mnogi živi osebki propadejo, delež odmiranja v prvem letu je kar 50 %. Tudi pri čebeljih naravnih in narejenih rojih bi bilo tako, ko bi človek ne našel čarobne paličice in čebele priklopil na infuzijo sladkorne raztopine. Čebele preživijo, a zadostne vitalnosti in odpornosti pa vendar ne dosežejo. Iz mladih čebeljih družin, ki se razvijajo v brezpašnem obdobju in gredo v zimo na slabi hrani, ne moremo pričakovati v naslednjem letu zadostne prosperitete. Kako se že reče ... čebelarsko (čebelje) leto se začne avgusta!

Z vidika družbe

Evropska komisija začenja s trimesečnim javnim posvetovanjem o prihodnosti skupne kmetijske politike prvo fazo njene posodobitve in poenostavitve. Čebelarstvo in ukrepi za preživetje medonosne čebele je delček skupnih kmetijskih politik. Kmetijstvo samo po sebi je eno od najstarejših politik EU, prispevki posameznih čebelarjev in njihovih civilnih združenj pa lahko omogoči boljše odzivanje na današnje družbene, političine, okoljske in gospodarske izzive.

Evropska komisija nagovarja k sodelovanju kmete, državljane, organizacije in vse zainteresirane naj povedo svoje mnenje o prihodnjih evropskih kmetijskih politikah. Rezultati iz naslova 6- tedenskega javnega posvetovanja bo komisija objavila do konca leta 2017.

Skratka, čebelarji in vsi zainteresirani za dobrobit čebel na plano s predlogi! Imamo možnost vplivanja na regulacije čebelarskih politik na evropski ravni. Čebelam prijazno je treba regulirati naravno hrano in na čebelam prijazen način je treba iz panjev končno že enkrat odpraviti varoje. Samo za to dvoje gre in niti slučajno ne za subvencije, ki mečejo pesek v oči še celo čebelam.

Kdo, kaj in kako ... na spodnjih dveh linkih:

http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-187_sl.htm

http://www.mkgp.gov.si/index.php?id=1333&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=9183&tx_ttnews[backPid]=12029&L=0&no_cache=1

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