Od surovine do povsem naravnega pridelka

Objavil/a Meda Polna Skleda, dne 2018-11-02 ob 15:56:10

Med je mogoče kupiti, vendar ga je bilo treba prej pridelati. To naredijo čebele. Čebelar je pravzaprav le posrednik med čebeljim panjem in kuhinjsko špajzo. Zapisi o medu so vedno povezani z zdravjem, blagostanjem, plodnostjo, z obiljem in še enkrat z zdravjem.

Surovino za med ali medičino, to je nektar in mano, čebele od nekdaj nabirajo na rastlinah. Nektar izvira iz cvetov ali drugih izločkov živih rastlinskih delov, mana pa je izloček žuželk, ki živijo na različnih delih rastlin.

         Rezultat iskanja slik za čebele na paši slike

Kar se tiče same proizvodnje medu potem, ko čebela prinese medičino v panj, gre za predelavo obnovljivega naravnega vira. Čebelam ni potrebno zato priglasiti dopolnilne dejavnosti, kot bi morali ljudje, da bi bilo vse po reglcih. Medičino prevzamejo hišne, t.i. panjske čebele. Panjske in pašne čebele dodajajo medičini izločke nekaterih svojih žlez, encime, ki povzročijo pretvorbo sladkorjev – predvsem saharoze – in drugih ogljikovih hidratov v glukozo, fruktozo in druge enostavne sladkorje. Dodajo še mnoge, čebelam lastne snovi, v dragocenih manjših količinah.

Prinešena medičina je v bistvu zelo vodena, zato imajo čebele v panju veliko dela, preden jo zgostijo, zmanjšajo vsebnost vode. To naredijo čebele tako, da medičino, ki so jo prejele od pašnih čebel, s posebnimi gibi iztiskajo iz medne golše na konec svojega rilčka, nato pa jo po nekaj sekundah vrnejo v medno golšo. Ta postopek večkrat ponovijo, tako da se že s tem delno zmanjša vsebnost vode. Ko ima medičina le še 30 do 40 % vode, jo čebele odlagajo v celice. Z nadaljnjim ventiliranjem (mahanjem s krilci, da omogočijo kroženje vlage in zraka v panju) se vsebnost vode zmanjša na približno 20 % ali še manj. Nato čebele medičino znova raznašajo okrog po satih, končno pa zrel med skladiščijo v celice, ki jih zaprejo z voščenimi pokrovci.

Formalno je za človeškega potrošnika med živilo, je živilo živalskega izvora, ker ga … proizvajajo čebele, ki so živali, in ga ne proizvaja čebelar, kot piše na nalepkah kozarcev z medom. Uradniške finte so pač take, in jih kot take vzamemo za nujo. Je pa vedno čebelar tisti, ki odgovarja za kvaliteto medu, nikoli čebele.

Tradicionalno pa je bil v preteklosti med predvsem sladilo, ko beli sladkor še ni bil dostopen, vedno pa predvsem zdravilo. Na kruh so nekoč tradicionalno mazali svinjsko mast, jo osladkali z medom ali kasneje s kristalnim sladkorjem in takšno malico so nekoč nosili otroci v šolo.

Danes je med lokalno dostopna lekarna na polici v špajzi, kjer je enakomerna temperatura okrog 14 do 16 °C, dotik čudovitega okusa in zdravila. Slovenski medovi skupaj s tradicionalno rabo čebeljih pridelkov so mnogo več od brenda, od znamke ali sheme po stopnjah kakovosti, gre za preverjeno zgodovinsko izročilo.

         Rezultat iskanja slik za panjske končnice slike

Iz zgodovine pa se o medu lahko še poučimo na kratko, tako kot so med predstavljali različni avtorji iz različnih zgodovinskih virov.

Že v daljni preteklosti je človek uporabljal med za sladkanje in kot zdravilo. Takrat so bile medonosne čebele naseljene večinoma na drevesih in človek je moral splezati gor, odganjati čebele iz njihovih bivališč in pri tem je nemalokrat tvegal svoje življenje.

Med je omenjan že v verskih zapisih tisočletja pred našim štetjem, recimo pri Indijcih. Kitajci so našli zapise o medu v knjigi pesmi iz 6. stoletja pred našim štetjem. Tudi v Egiptu so najdene stenske risbe in papirusi iz obdobja 1500 do 1700 let pred našim štetjem o medu kot sladilu.

O pridobivanju oz. proizvodnji medu je baje prvi pisal Aristotel, Hipokrat pa o zdravilnih učinkikih medu. Balzamiranje z medom so uporabili pri Aleksandru Velikem. V Bizancu so mnogim jedem dodajali med.

Med so omenjali Vergil, Varro in Plinij. Namesto zlata so uporabljali med za plačilo dajatev v času Julija Cezarja.

V začetku našega štetja je več kot polovica receptov vsebovala med v kuharskih knjigah, ki jih je napisal Rimljan Apicus.

Med je omenjen pogosto tudi v Svetem pismu, Stara zaveza ga omenja kar 54-krat. Znan rek je izjava kralja Salomona: 'Jejte med, ker je dober'. V Novi zavezi igra med vlogo pri Kristusovem vstajenju.

Koran priporoča med kot vsesplošno živilo in zdravilo. Menili so tudi, da med prinaša srečo.

Srednjeveški svetniki so pogosto upodobljeni s pletenimi koši, tako tudi sv. Ambrož, zavetnik čebelarjev.

Končno pa ne smemo obiti medu pri Keltih, Germanih in Slovanih, saj je medica predstavljala pomembno pijačo.

V Srednji in Južni Ameriki so med neželatih čebel uporabljali še pred Kolumbom. Med je predstavljal dar bogov in bil simbol plodnosti. Poznala so ga stara ljudstva v Afriki, od razvitejšega severa do primitivnejšega juga.

         Rezultat iskanja slik za panjske končnice slike

Sodobni čebelarji so drugačni kot čebelarji v preteklosti, sodobni čebelarji med pridelujejo, v preteklosti pa so čebelarji čebele spoštovali, jih varovali in imeli radi. Če so jih želeli ohraniti, so morali tako. Poznamo motiv s panjske končnice, kjer čebelar sedi na klopci pred čebelnjakom in uživa.

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Meda Polna Skleda
Meda Polna Skleda
Objavil/a 2018-11-02 15:56:10 (Nov 02, 2018)
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ZADNJE OBJAVE
FREJ KOT PTIČEK NA VEJ' JE ČEBELAR POZIMI
POGUM IN TIMOL = TIMIJAN
PRIDOBIVANJE MEDU IZ TUJEGA ČEBELNJAKA
PROPOLIS, ZADELAVINA
POAPNELA ZALEGA, VZROK IN POSLEDICA ZMANJŠEVANJA VITALNOSTI ČEBELJIH DRUŽIN
ZELIŠČNA GREDA V OBLIKI SPIRALE
ZAKAJ ČEBELE JESENI ZAPUSTIJO PANJ?
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