Čišljakove bele poljane

Objavil/a Meda Polna Skleda, dne 2019-01-01 ob 20:21:18

Stachys annua – enoletni čišljak, enoletni trnocelj, ime čišljak spominja na češki in ruski čistec (hrv. beli bosiljak ali staračac, jednogodišnji čistac, goli čistac, maljavi čistac, bijeli čistac, bijeli bosiljak, zlatni konsulj)

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Čišljak, enoletni medoviti plevel, cveti od junija do novembra, doseže višino do 40 cm, ena rastlina proizvede letno 24.000 semen, čebelam nudi medičino in cvetni prah. Čebele na paši dobijo bela čela zaradi čišljakovega cvetnega prahu. Cvetovi so združeni v 3 – 7 pakobulih proti koncu stebla in vej, v enem pakobulu je 2 – 6 cvetov. Cvetovi so bledo rumeni, beli, redko svetle roza ali svetle lila barve, somerni. Cveti od junija do septembra.

Dnevni donos je do 6 kg na panj, skupni donos na panj je cca 50 kg, na 1 ha naberejo čebele 200 kg medu. Med je nežno rumene barve, brez vonja, sladko trpkega okusa. Hitro, že po dveh ali treh tednih kristalizira z drobnimi kristali in postane bel. Nekoč se ga je uvrščalo v manjvredne medove, danes dobiva na pomenu.

Čišljak raste po vsej Evropi – v kolikor ni iztrebljen na kmetijskih površinah z zatiranjem plevela ali prezgodnjim oranjem – več pa ga je v vzhodnem Sredozemlju, kamor je emigriral iz Orienta. Najdemo ga tudi pri nas, v sosednjih državah ex-juge pa ga je bilo toliko, da so slovenski čebelarji v Banat in Vojvodino množično prevažali čebele na pašo 'na bosiljak', z vlakom, kasneje s tovornjaki in še kasneje s predelanimi kamioni v prevozni čebelnjak.

Rezultat iskanja slik za beli bosiljak slike

Enoletni čišljak je dobro uspeval kot plevel na obdelanih njivah, na strniščih, po žetvi ozimnih žit pa se je še posebej bujno razvijal in nudil pozno pašo. Rastel je tudi po železniških nasipih, peščenih kotanjah in ledinah ter zapuščenih in zanemarjenih njivah. Za čebeljo pašo je bil pomemben čišljak, ki se je razvil po žetvi žit.

V Vojvodini, kjer je bil nekoč glavna paša, verjetno pa tudi večjega dela celotne Panonije, je cvetel že proti koncu julija, ves avgust in v prvi polovici septembra. Med ječmenom in koruzo je bolje uspeval kot med koruzo, kjer so ga z okopavanjem uničevali skupaj z drugimi pleveli. Minula desetletja so s čišljakom opravili herbicidi.

Za časa Avstro – Ogrske so Dunajčani izredno cenili čišljakov med. Danes, v času splošne uporabe kemikalij, herbicidov in 'sodobne' kmetijske proizvodnje bo čišljak skoraj gotovo popolnoma izkoreninjen s polj in njiv. Nekaj ga je mogoče najti na strniščih, običajno po ali v času sončnične paše. Le malo poštenega dežja je treba, in strnišča postanejo prave belo snežne livade. Nekoč pa se je baje v Sremu čišljakov med dobesedno cedil iz panjskih žrel.

Čišljak medi, če ima dovolj vlage in toplote, najbolj pa takrat, ko sledijo dežju topli mirni dnevi in rosne noči, za medenje je namreč potrebna ravno pravšnja poletna toplota in vlaga. Ob ohladitvi ozračja medenje poneha. Suhe noči in vetrovno vreme zmanjšuje izločanje medičine. Ob neugodnem vremenu (suša, moča, veter) je čišljakova paša zaključena že avgusta.

Rezultat iskanja slik za beli bosiljak pčelinja paša

Pri dobri paši se pri čebeljih družinah lahko pojavi rojilno razpoloženje, zlasti če so utesnjene v manjših panjih.

S pašo na čišljaku pa ni bilo mogoče računati že v petdesetih letih prejšnjega stoletja, agrotehnični svetovalci so narekovali kmetom, naj strnišča takoj po žetvi preorjejo, da bi se pleveli ne mogli razmnoževati. Ko bi počakali vsaj do srede avgusta, bi čišljak razvil večji del semena in se tako ohranil za naslednje leto. Še vedno bi bilo izgubljene vsaj pol paše, a kompromis nasproti agrotehničnim zahtevam bi bil morda dosežen vsaj v dobro čebel, ki bi si tako nabrale zimskih zalog.

Še vedno ga je največ v Vojvodini, a tudi tam izginja zaradi prakticiranja sodobnih tehnologij pri gojenju žitaric. Tudi spričo podnebnih sprememb ni več pričakovati močnih paš na čišljaku; celo tisti, ki uspe zrasti na nezoranih njivah, kjer je bila prej pšenica, se poleti posuši zaradi tropskih vročin. Paša na čišljaku ni nikjer več atraktivna paša, kot je bila nekoč, seveda pa so dobrodošli tudi manjši donosi v zadnjih poletnih dneh. Najpogosteje je le stimulativna paša za boljši razvoj poznopoletne in jesenske zalege, a v Sloveniji tudi toliko ne, saj ne uspeva več na večjih njivskih površinah.

Beli bosiljak (staračac, beli čistac) na srbobranskom, Karinom salašu – gazde Radivoja Nićina; foto: L. Lazić, Srbobran, 2013.

V zgodovini je imel čišljak širok nabor uporabe. Poleg močne in dolgotrajne čebelje paše se je uporabljal tudi kot začimba in zdravilna rastlina. Simbolno predstavlja blagostanje, zdravje, bogastvo, srečo ...

Obstaja veliko število vrst Stachysov, ki se razlikujejo po velikosti, listih, barvi in kompaktnosti cvetov. Ilustracija iz knjige Deutschlands Flora in Abbildungen (1796), ki sta jo napisala oče in sin Sturm:

Rezultat iskanja slik za beli bosiljak pčelinja paša

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Všeč mi je
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Meda Polna Skleda
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Jan 04, 2019
Hvala!
V novem letu pa za vse: zdravja, sreče in medu. Naj medi!
#2
Jaka Lumbar
0
Jan 03, 2019
Pridna, v novem letu takoj peresnik v roke in že nov prispevek. V novem letu pa obilo zdravja in sladkega medu.
#1
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