ZAKAJ ČEBELE JESENI ZAPUSTIJO PANJ?

Objavil/a Meda Polna Skleda, dne 2019-11-17 ob 06:52:54

Jeseni si mnogi čebelarji, tudi tisti z daljšim čebelarskim stažem, postavljajo vprašanje, zakaj so čebelji panji preko noči ostali prazni. Čebele dobesedno izginejo kljub dobrim zalogam hrane, včasih zapuste celo nekaj pokrite zalege, ki v kratkem žalostno propade. Govora je o t.i. izginjanju čebel, sprožilec izginotja pa je večinoma neznan. Čebelarji in strokovnjaki s področja čebelarstva se upravičeno, a bolj ali manj nemočno vprašujemo, zakaj neki bi čebele jeseni, tik pred zimo, brez očitnega razloga zapustile panj! Očitna je le ugotovitev, da so čebele preprosto pobegnile.

Rezultat iskanja slik za zakaj čebele izginjajo slike

Vsi čebelarji in ljubitelji čebel poznamo dejstvo rojenja, ki predstavlja v fazi viška razvoja čebelje družine cepljenje oz. delitev čebel tako, da dobra polovica članov čebelje družine zapusti panj in gre na svoje skupaj s staro matico, manjši del z velikimi zalogami pokritega medu, pokrite čebelje zalege in mladimi maticami v matičnikih tik pred izleženjem pa ostane v panju in živi naprej. Poznamo tudi izraz 'lakotni roj' v poznem poletju, tudi za ta pojav je težko ugotoviti pravi razlog rojenja, ugibamo o pomanjkanju hrane, vemo pa ne zares.

Bega čebel v jesenskem času, tik pred prihodom zime pa ne razumemo, vsi skupaj, strokovnjaki in laiki le ugibamo, čebelarji z izkušnjami morda nekoliko laže pridejo do ugotovitev in zaključkov. Težko ali celo nemogoče je ugotoviti razlog izginjanja zato, ker ne poznamo stanja v panju pred begom, lahko preiskujemo in raziskujemo le prazen panj. Razlogi za pobeg so lako različni, predvidevamo pa lahko predvsem tele:

  • čebelja družina je bila izpostavljena nadlegovanju divjih prostoživečih živali ali nadlegovanju čebelarja s prepogostimi ali agresivnimi pregledi in tretiranji proti varojam

  • čebelji panj je bil izpostavljen množičnim napadom plenilcev, kot so recimo mravlje, vešče, voščeni molji, miši, rovke ipd.

  • močno pomanjkanje nektarne paše in cvetnega prahu iz okolja v času priprav na zimo, zato so zimske zaloge okrnjene

  • neprimerno ali neučinkovito jesensko zatiranje varoj

  • neprilagojena oskrba čebel zaradi podnebnih sprememb, zimske čebele so izčrpane še pred prihodom zime zaradi podaljšanja izletne sezone daleč v jesen

  • izčrpanost čebel zaradi lahkomnega odvzemanja ne le medu, ampak tudi vseh drugih čebeljih pridelkov

Rezultat iskanja slik za stres pri čebelah slike

Čebelja družina se lahko počuti ogroženo iz različnih razlogov, ki jih čebelarska stroka lahko predvidi ali pa ne. Nekatere razloge bi bilo mogoče odpraviti s čebelam prijaznim čebelarjenjem, drugi pa so neizogibni in jim šibkejše čebelje družine tudi s skrbno čebelarjevo pomočjo niso kos. Čebele so znotraj panja izpostavljene stresu in odreagirajo v sili tako, da preprosto pobegnejo na varnejši kraj. Čebele ocenijo, da imajo v panju premalo možnosti za preživetje zime in se odločijo za odhod ven.

Vendar je pobeg iz panja proces, podoben kot rojenje, čebelja družina se predhodno pripravi na beg iz panja. Matica je vedno manj hranjena, preneha zalegati in shujša, da bo lahko poletela, čebeljo zalego delavke ne hranijo več v redu, skavtke oz. čebele izvidničarke pa poletijo v iskanje novega kraja za življenje.

Takšna čebelja družina, ki je v fazi predpobega, nima možnosti preživetja zime. Procesa ni mogoče ustaviti, tudi če bi čebelar lahko pravočasno uvidel dogajanje. Pobegla čebelja družina v pozni jeseni nima oskrbe s hrano iz okolja, ni medičine, ker so čebelje paše že zdavnaj usahnile, nima izdelanega satja in seveda nima dovolj časa za pripravo na zimo. Možnost preživetja bi morda bila le s pomočjo skrbnega čebelarja, ki bi takšno družino prestavil v čist panj, jo oskrbel z dovolj pokrite zimske hrane in preverjal zdravstveno stanje čebelje družine.

Vendar velja previdnost skupaj z uporabo zdrave kmečke pameti! Čebelarjenje je zahtevno področje, ki zahteva veliko znanja in izkušenj, velika je čebelarjeva odgovornost ne le do svojih čebel, ampak mora gledati tudi za dobro čebel okrog njegovega čebelnjaka. Obstaja velika nevarnost, da bi čebelar, ki v bistvu želi le pomagati čebelam, v svoj čebelnjak skupaj s čebelami prinesel še uničujoče čebelje bolezni ali parazite, skupaj z rešeno čebeljo družino. Tveganje za okužbe je veliko tudi za čebelje družine v bližnjih čebelnjakih, morda bi bolezni ali varoza izbruhnili šele spomladi 'od nikoder' ali 'z neba' – pravzaprav od pobeglih čebel, ki so nekako uspele preživotariti zimo in podlegle v fazi t.i. burnega spomladanskega razvoja, kateremu več niso bile kos. Velika je namreč tudi verjetnost, da so čebele zapustile panj, da bi se rešile pred virusi, bakterijami ali varojami v panju.

Etičen čebelarski mentor bo veliko pozornosti namenil pobiranju oz. kraji čebeljih rojev neznanega porekla še posebej po koncu razmnoževalne sezone čebel in opozarjal na nevarnosti močne ekploatacije čebeljih družin.

Rezultat iskanja slik za zakaj čebele izginjajo slike

Nič več ni tako, kot je bilo nekoč in isto velja tudi za čebelarjenje. Podnebne spremembe se niso zgodile čez noč in tudi konec jih še ni. Potrebno je prilagajanje izkušenj in umišljenega čebelarskega znanja.

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Meda Polna Skleda
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