Psihoanalitični vidiki psihičnega funkcioniranja športnikov - 1. del

Objavil/a Roman Vodeb, dne 2020-09-25 ob 16:56:12

Nedavno sem po dolgem času spet predaval (v živo) na licenčnem seminarju smučarskih trenerjev (v Portorožu). Moje pisno gradivo je šlo v tole smer:

To, da se po kuloarjih šušlja, da so moja »prepovedana« znanja še kako dobrodošla – ker povem tisto, kar se v resnici ne bi smelo povedati, je pa zelo koristno in uporabno – vem že vsaj četrt stoletja. Res je, da za nameček (uradno) povem tisto, kar neuradno velja za prepovedano. Ker je že pred leti v javnost pricurljala novica, da »delam« z Ilko Štuhec, marsikoga zanimajo detajli moje intervencije v Ilkino psiho. No, o tem ne bom govoril (niti pisal) – ker tako ali tako nihče, ki je vpet v smučarijo in ki ga tema zanima, ne bi t. r. nič razumel, ker gre za »kvantne« dimenzije psihoanalitične intervencije v cel koncept psihične priprave športnika. Da bi se nekomu vsaj približno sanjalo, kaj je po mojem (psihoanalitičnem) videnju pomembno za razumevanje psihične priprave športnikov, bi rabil kar nekaj semestrov študija psihoanalize. Tega pa ne premore nobena katedra oz. fakulteta v Sloveniji – niti Oddelek za psihologijo (na FF), še najmanj pa Fakulteta za šport. Hkrati sem tudi prepričan, da se psihoanalitična intervencija v razumevanje psihične/psihološke priprave športnikov (verjetno) še ni zgodila nikjer po svetu. Psihoanaliza načeloma domuje v psihoterapevtiki in filozofiji, v klasični ego-psihologiji (in psihiatriji) pa (niti) ne (razen v propedevtičnem smislu).

Ko sem letos razmišljal, da bi Slovenskemu krovnemu psihoterapevtskemu združenju (SKZP) vendarle ponudil svoje predavanje  torej, da bi se na njihovem tradicionalnem kongresu (»Študijskih dnevih na Rogli«) ponudil kot predavatelj, sem imel pomisleke. Predvideval sem, da ne bom sprejet kot predavatelj, ker imajo svoj »vrtiček« getoiziran – zaprt za nepovabljene … Potem je prišel COVID19, in je tako ali tako vse padlo v vodo. Predavati pa sem nameraval spolzko temo – v smislu, da »je (učinkovita, kvalitetna) psihična priprava športnikov v resnici psihoterapija«. Aktualni športni psihologi bi se sicer zmrdovali, psihoterapevti pa bi si meli roke, ker bi se jim (v biznisu) obetala nova klientela »pacientov«, klientov, strank: športniki in športnice ter njihovi trenerji. Ta moja osnovna teza na področju psihične priprave športnikov, ki jo zagovarjam (in tudi izvajam) že več let – torej, da je kvalitetna psihična priprava v resnici psihoterapija  (in to psihoanalitična psihoterapija), skozi katero je potrebno predelati določene ključne dogodke iz preteklosti oz. otroštva in mladosti. Ravno v teh potlačitvah (in izrivanjih) po mojem videnju in izkušnjah – pri nekaterih vrhunskih športnikih – tiči znameniti »odpor do zmage« oz. »odpor do uspeha« (kot bi rekel Freud), ki je pogosto spregledan/nezaznan s strani klasičnih športnih psihologov.

Ker v teh časih pišem knjigo o kritiki koncepta psihiatrije (skozi psihoanalizo), se poglabljam tudi v eno zadnjih knjig, ki je pri nas izšla pred kratki (2019), in ki posredno brani sistem klasičnega psihiatričnega diagnosticiranja in tudi psihiatričnega, torej tudi farmakološkega pristopa do pacientov s psihičnimi težavami, motnjami in boleznimi. Avtor knjige je psiholog Simon Brezovar (roj. 1986) in ima naslov »Osebnostne motnje (v teoriji in praksi)«. Brezovar se med drugim (posredno) dotakne tudi Freuda, čeprav ni ravno dober poznavalec Freuda in psihoanalize. Freuda vpelje preko legende slovenske psihologije Janeka Museka. Tisto, kar je za kontekst psihične priprave športnikov pomembno, je tole Brezovarjevo izluščenje: »Freud je nedvomno  ena izmed najpomembnejših zgodovinskih osebnosti. Njegove ideje so temeljito razburkale duha tistega časa, in jih lahko, kar se tiče njihovega vpliva in daljnosežnosti, mirno vzporejamo z Einsteinovo teorijo relativnosti in Darwinovo evolucijsko teorijo …« Brezovar Freuda in psihoanalizo sicer vpelje zaradi njegove karakterologije, in omenja članke iz leta 1908 »Karakter in analni erotizem«, kjer Freud predstavi t. i. analni karakter. Ob konceptu nevroze je Freud tako vpeljal tudi t. i. nevrotični značaj, ki je v osnovi povezan z znamenitimi tremi fazami psihoseksualnega oz. libidinalnega razvoja: oralna, analna in falična faza, kar povezuje tudi z oralnim, analnim in faličnim značajem/karakterjem. Freud je svojo karakterologijo nadaljeval leta 1916 s člankom »Nekaj značajskih tipov, ki jih srečamo v psihoanalitičnem delu«, ki ga izpostavlja tudi Brezovar, saj nadalje izlušči tri značajske tipe oz. »deformacije značaja«, kot se izrazi: 1. »Izjeme«, 2. »Propadli zaradi uspeha« in 3. »Storilci iz slabe vesti«.[1] Z vidika psihične priprave športnikov so vsi trije tipi (»deformacije«) še kako pomembni.


[1] Zanimivo, da je pri nas to Freudovo delo izšlo v knjigi »Spisi iz umetnosti«, saj Freud vpelje Shakespeara in njegova junaka Richarda III. in lady Macbath.

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Roman Vodeb
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Objavil/a 2020-09-25 16:56:12 (Sep 25, 2020)
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