Kako so zatirali varoje

Objavil/a Meda Polna Skleda, dne 2018-09-19 ob 17:25:55

oz. prekinitev zaleganja in zdravljenje varoze po novem/starem.

Ob pojavu varoj pri nas so čebelarji 'zdravili' čebelje družine predvsem z dimljenjem z agresivnimi 'zdravili', poskušali pa so tudi s takrat še neregistriranimi učinkovinami, recimo z eteričnimi olji (timolom), kislinami (mravljično, oksalno) ali s tobakovimi listi. V bistvu zdravljenje varoze ni prav nič napredovalo v štiridesetih letih, kolikor jih je do sedaj imela na voljo farmacija, vsaj v Sloveniji. Tako kot v začetku je tudi zdaj v ospredju najočitneje ekonomski motiv, saj je od uspešnega zatiranja varoj in zdravstvenega stanja čebel v veliki meri odvisen tudi ekonomski položaj večjih čebelarjev. Tudi postopanja proti varozi se danes ne razlikujejo od začetkov pojava varoj, gre zgolj za preprečitev škode v čebelarstvu, doseganje še znosne ravni prisotnosti varoj v panjih in medlo predvladajoče iskanje novih učinkovitih sredstev za zatiranje parazita.

V obupu so že v osemdesetih letih na čebelarskih simpozijih izpostavljali vedno pogostejše zahteve, da naj bi se s čebelarstvom ne ukvarjali ljubiteljski čebelarji, torej amaterji (nasproti profesionalnim čebelarjem). Žal še vedno ni mogoče z dovoljenimi in registriranimi sredstvi za zatiranje varoj parazita učinkovito uničiti, povsem in v celoti odpraviti varozo. Ob uporabi sleherne učinkovine čebelarji mučimo svoje ljube čebele in vedno ostane nekaj primerkov varoj, ki uporabljeno sredstvo (akaricid) in način tretiranja preživijo in postopoma vendar zanesljivo razvijajo rezistenco. Obupani čebelarji pač povečujejo doze, ker jim drugega ne preostane v želji, da ohranijo čebelji fond.

Žal še vedno na področju razvoja učinkovitih sredstev za zatiranje varoj ni videti koncerna, ki bi to financiral, ker to preprosto ni v njegovem interesu. Morda se uresničijo prognoze nekaterih posameznikov iz čebelarske srenje, ko naj bi bila težava z varojami rešena tako rekoč čez noč, če se bo 'razlezel' na širša območja in v več držav – panjski hrošč. Varoje bi se ujele v zanki zatiranja panjskega hrošča, kot je ob njihovem pojavu in posledičnem zatiranju prešel problem zatiranja čebeljih uši, ki jih preprosto ni več ali pa ne predstavljajo problema za zdravje čebel.

So pa tudi že pred desetletji opozarjali na problem ostankov v panju ob zavedanju, da doz in tretiranj ni mogoče stopnjevati v nedogled. Čebelarji in kmetijska politika bi ne smeli dopustiti, da bo porabnik izbral namesto medu marmelado, saj to pomeni propad čebelarstva v celoti, pa naj bo ljubiteljsko amatersko ali ekonomsko profesionalno. Zahteve po pašnih fevdih varoze pač ne bodo rešile.

Ob prvih spopadanjih z varojami so razvili najprej v Romuniji in nato v vzhodni Srbiji (takratni skupni državi Jugoslaviji torej) dimljenje čebel proti varozi ob pokriti zalegi. Metoda je bila posredovana slovenskim čebelarjem v SČ 12/1984. V osnovi se je začela uporabljati na področjih, kjer čebelarijo z LR panjskim sistemom, prilagoditev pa je mogoča tudi za AŽ panje. Metoda obsega plinjenje oz. dimljenje in prestavljanje zalege.

Plinjenje po zgornji metodi je bilo predvideno takoj po točenju v glavni paši, v krajih, kjer je več izdatnejših paš, pa takoj po akacijevi paši. Panje je bilo treba ustrezno pripraviti - za LR: iz zgornje naklade ob točenju odvzamemo polne medene sate, v zgornjo izpraznjeno naklado iz spodnje naklade prestavimo vse sate s pokrito zalego, s čebelami vred. V spodnji nakladi odvzete sate nadomestimo z iztočenimi sati in dvema satnicama. Sate z odkrito zalego in matico pustimo v plodiščni nakladi. Obe nakladi, eno z odkrito, drugo s pokrito zalego ločimo s pregradno desko, tako nastaneta dve čebelji družini. Zgornja naklada mora imeti izletno odprtino, zato gredo vse pašne čebele ven in se po izletu vrnejo v spodnjo naklado, kjer so bile predhodno uletene. Naslednji dan vsadimo gornji čebelji družini (s pokrito zalego) zrel matičnik ter jo izdatno nakrmimo s sladkorno raztopino. Spodnjo družino (z odkrito zalego) plinimo oz. dimimo z registriranim in dovoljenim sredstvom za zatiranje varoj. V tem delu panja ni pokrite zalege, tako lahko uporabljeno sredstvo učinkuje na vse čebele v družini in je učinkovitost zatiranja varoj relativno visoka.

Približno po dveh tednih se v zgornji nakladi že izleže mlada matica in vse čebele iz pokrite zalege. Ko mlada matica začne z zaleganjem plinimo oz. dimimo še zgornjo naklado in dosežemo enak učinek, kot smo ga predhodno v spodnji nakladi. Po tretiranju odstranimo pregradno desko, staro matico odstranimo iz panja ter obe družini združimo. Tako smo v obdobju najburnejšega razvoja čebelje družine kar najuspešneje zatrli razvoj varoze, poskrbeli, da družina v tem letu ne bo rojila in menjali matico ter dobili močno čebeljo družino, ki bo do konca čebelarske sezone uspešno izkoriščala paše.

V AŽ panjskem sistemu ustrezno prilagodimo tehnologijo za doseganje zgornjih učinkov; vzamemo tako, kot da je plodišče panja spodnja naklada, zgornja naklada je medišče, matično rešetko pa zamenjamo s celo, z ločilno pregrado.

Očitno so že dolgo nazaj poznali in prakticirali različne načine za uspešno zatiranje varoj ob prekinitvi zaleganja in hkratni vzreji mlade matice. Od pojava varoj v našem prostoru nekako nič novega …, ali pač? Pač, takrat še ni bila dovoljena in registrirana uporaba mravljične in oksalne kisline, in prav slednja je danes priporočana v splošnem in tudi v ekoloških čebelarstvih – ob novoizumljeni oz. znova odkriti stari metodi prekinitve zaleganja. Čebele in čebelarji ostajamo na istem, odvisni drug od drugega (čebelarji) in od čebel ter njihove odpornosti na varoje in sredstva za zatiranje varoj. Čebelarji smo odvisni drug od drugega zaradi varovanja zdravja čebel – če niso zdrave čebele pri sosednjem čebelarju, tudi moje ne bodo mogle biti in obratno.

Danes so v posamičnih čebelarskih praksah v uporabi mnogi različki t.i. apitehničnih ukrepov (tozadevno izobraževanje je ena od zahtev za kandidiranje na razpisane tehnične pomoči), vsi ti ukrepi pa so tako ali drugače povezani z grobim poseganjem v življenje in delo čebelje družine in celo obračunavanjem s troti oz. odstranjevanjem trotovske zalege, s prvo in poslednjo zalego čebel delavk, tudi z maticami, ki so starejše od leta ali dveh, kot bi dvomili v 'zdravo čebeljo pamet' in njihove razvojne načrte v čebeljih družinah. Omejujemo, odvzemamo, uničujemo … matice, trote in delavke – hm, če bomo zelo uspešni z apitehniko, bo zmanjkalo čebel, pa bo problem varoze tudi rešen. Dokončno.

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